沁恒CH32V103C8T6(二): Linux RISC-V编译和烧录环境配置

目录

硬件准备

  • CH32V103 开发板/核心版
  • WCH-Link

软件准备

软件主要是用于编译的 RISC-V GCC , 和用于烧录的 OpenOCD.

  • RISC-V GCC 可以选择公版或者WCH版
  • OpenOCD 暂时只能用WCH定制版本, 用公版的无法识别 wlink

公版 RISC-V GCC

前往 https://github.com/xpack-dev-tools/riscv-none-embed-gcc-xpack/releases 下载

MounRiver 提供的工具链, 包含 RISC-V GCC 和 OpenOCD

前往 http://mounriver.com/download 下载 MRS_Toolchain_Linux_x64, 当前是 MRS_Toolchain_Linux_x64_V1.50.tar.xz, RISC-V GCC 版本为 8.2.0.

解压工具链压缩包, 目录结构为

── beforeinstall
│     ├── 50-wch.rules
│     ├── 60-openocd.rules
│     ├── libhidapi-hidraw.so -> libhidapi-hidraw.so.0.0.0
│     ├── libhidapi-hidraw.so.0 -> libhidapi-hidraw.so.0.0.0
│     ├── libhidapi-hidraw.so.0.0.0
│     ├── libhidapi-libusb.so -> libhidapi-libusb.so.0.0.0
│     ├── libhidapi-libusb.so.0 -> libhidapi-libusb.so.0.0.0
│     ├── libhidapi-libusb.so.0.0.0
│     ├── libjaylink.so -> libjaylink.so.0.1.0
│     ├── libjaylink.so.0 -> libjaylink.so.0.1.0
│     ├── libjaylink.so.0.1.0
│     ├── libmcuupdate.so
│     ├── libncurses.so.5 -> libncurses.so.5.9
│     ├── libncurses.so.5.9
│     ├── libtinfo.so.5 -> libtinfo.so.5.9
│     ├── libtinfo.so.5.9
│     ├── libusb-1.0.so -> libusb-1.0.so.0.3.0
│     ├── libusb-1.0.so.0 -> libusb-1.0.so.0.3.0
│     ├── libusb-1.0.so.0.3.0
│     └── start.sh
├── OpenOCD
│     ├── bin
│     │     ├── openocd
│     │     ├── wch-arm.cfg
│     │     └── wch-riscv.cfg
│     ├── README.md
│     └── share
├── README
└── RISC-V Embedded GCC
    ├── bin
    ├── distro-info
    ├── include
    │     └── gdb
    │         └── jit-reader.h
    ├── lib
    │     ├── bfd-plugins
    │     └── gcc
    ├── lib64
    │     ├── libcc1.so -> libcc1.so.0.0.0
    │     ├── libcc1.so.0 -> libcc1.so.0.0.0
    │     ├── libcc1.so.0.0.0
    │     ├── libgcc_s.so.1
    │     ├── libstdc++.so.6 -> libstdc++.so.6.0.24
    │     └── libstdc++.so.6.0.24
    ├── libexec
    │     └── gcc
    ├── README.md
    ├── riscv-none-embed
    └── share

其中

  • beforeinstall 目录下是需要配置到Ubuntu中的动态链接库文件, 和设备规则文件
    • start.sh 这个文件里面有设置环境的命令
  • OpenOCD 这个目录下有一定制的 openocd 可执行文件, 以及对应的 wch-arm 和 wch-riscv 的配置文件
  • RISC-V Embedded GCC RISC-V 编译器

安装

RISC-V GCC 安装

这部分比较简单, 在 /opt 目录下建一个 gcc-riscv 目录, 将工具解压后复制过去, 用公版或WCH工具链中带的版本都行. 设置好相应的权限, 路径在后面配置 Makefile 的时候需要使用, 用 --version验证一下是否正常

/opt/gcc-riscv$ /opt/gcc-riscv/riscv-none-embed-gcc-10.2.0-1.2/bin/riscv-none-embed-gcc --version

riscv-none-embed-gcc (xPack GNU RISC-V Embedded GCC x86_64) 10.2.0
Copyright (C) 2020 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO
warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

OpenOCD 安装

也是解压后复制到 /opt 目录下, 验证一下

/opt/gcc-riscv$ /opt/openocd/wch-openocd/bin/openocd --version

Open On-Chip Debugger 0.11.0+dev-02215-gcc0ecfb6d-dirty (2022-06-23-10:21)
Licensed under GNU GPL v2
For bug reports, read
  http://openocd.org/doc/doxygen/bugs.html

环境配置

在openocd可以正常烧录前, 需要进行一些环境配置, 参考 WCH 工具包下的 beforeinstall 目录

1. 配置动态链接库

因为环境中还安装了其他的工具, 为避免冲突, 对 start.sh 中的步骤手工安装. 在 /usr/lib 下创建一个单独的目录, 用于放置这些动态链接库文件

cd /usr/lib
sudo mkdir wch-moun-river
sudo cp ./beforeinstall/lib* wch-moun-river/

为这个新的链接库文件目录增加ldconfig配置, 在 /etc/ld.so.conf.d/ 下创建文件 wch-moun-river.conf , 内容如下

more /etc/ld.so.conf.d/wch-moun-river.conf 
# lib for wch moun river studio
/usr/lib/wch-moun-river

然后更新生效

sudo ldconfig

如果出现这样的提示, 说明环境中存在多个同样名称的动态链接库, 如果不想看到这些警告可以将这些文件删除, 也可以忽略

/sbin/ldconfig.real: /usr/lib/wch-moun-river/libtinfo.so.5 is not a symbolic link

2. 配置设备权限

先检查一下 /etc/udev/ 下是否已经存在相关的配置, 如果有, 需要和这两个规则整合一下, 如果没有, 直接复制然后更新就可以了

sudo cp ./50-wch.rules /etc/udev/rules.d
sudo cp ./60-openocd.rules  /etc/udev/rules.d
# Reload rules
sudo udevadm control  --reload-rules

3. 检查是否生效

将 WCH-Link 和开发板连接到电脑, 此时dmesg应该能正常检测到 WCH-Link 设备, 检查一下 WCH-Link 是否运行在 WCH-Link 模式, 如果运行在 DAP-Link模式下, 需要切换一下.

[ 2449.285125] usb 2-3: USB disconnect, device number 2
[ 2452.341042] usb 2-3: new full-speed USB device number 5 using xhci_hcd
[ 2452.494530] usb 2-3: New USB device found, idVendor=1a86, idProduct=8010, bcdDevice= 2.05
[ 2452.494543] usb 2-3: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3
[ 2452.494549] usb 2-3: Product: WCH-Link
[ 2452.494554] usb 2-3: Manufacturer: wch.cn
[ 2452.494558] usb 2-3: SerialNumber: 0001A0000000
[ 2452.498525] cdc_acm 2-3:1.1: ttyACM0: USB ACM device

到工具链解压目录下, 用 OpenOCD 检查是否能正常连接

./openocd -f wch-riscv.cfg -c init -c halt

# 如果有以下的显示说明配置正确
Open On-Chip Debugger 0.11.0+dev-02215-gcc0ecfb6d-dirty (2022-06-23-10:21)
Licensed under GNU GPL v2
For bug reports, read
  http://openocd.org/doc/doxygen/bugs.html
Info : only one transport option; autoselect 'jtag'
Ready for Remote Connections
Info : WCH-Link-CH549  mod:RV version 2.5 
Info : wlink_init ok
Info : This adapter doesn't support configurable speed
Info : JTAG tap: riscv.cpu tap/device found: 0x00000001 (mfg: 0x000 (<invalid>), part: 0x0000, ver: 0x0)
Warn : Bypassing JTAG setup events due to errors
Info : [riscv.cpu.0] datacount=2 progbufsize=8
Info : Examined RISC-V core; found 1 harts
Info :  hart 0: XLEN=32, misa=0x0
[riscv.cpu.0] Target successfully examined.
Info : starting gdb server for riscv.cpu.0 on 3333
Info : Listening on port 3333 for gdb connections
Info : Listening on port 6666 for tcl connections
Info : Listening on port 4444 for telnet connections

如果显示下面的错误, 说明动态链接库配置有误

./openocd: symbol lookup error: ./openocd: undefined symbol: jaylink_device_get_usb_bus_ports

如果显示下面的错误, 说明使用的不是 wch 提供的定制 openocd

wch-riscv.cfg:2: Error: invalid command name "adapter"
in procedure 'script' 
at file "embedded:startup.tcl", line 60
at file "wch-riscv.cfg", line 2

运行示例项目

导出项目

从 GitHub 导出项目到本地

git clone https://github.com/IOsetting/ch32v103-template.git

修改项目配置

打开 Makefile 将工具路径配置为自己的路径

TOOL_CHAIN_PATH ?= /opt/gcc-riscv/riscv-none-embed-gcc-10.2.0-1.2/bin
OPENOCD_PATH    ?= /opt/openocd/wch-openocd/bin

项目名称可以修改

PROJECT_NAME    = test001

编译项目

# 清理
make clean

# 编译
make

烧录

make flash

附录

编译命令和参数说明

编译命令的基本格式如下

riscv-none-embed-gcc 
  -march=rv32imac 
  -mabi=ilp32 
  -msmall-data-limit=8 
  -mno-save-restore 
  -Os 
  -fmessage-length=0 
  -fsigned-char 
  -ffunction-sections
  -fdata-sections
  -Wunused 
  -Wuninitialized  
  -g 
  -I"/home/milton/WorkRiscV/ch32v_ws001/ch32v103_test001/Debug" 
  -I"/home/milton/WorkRiscV/ch32v_ws001/ch32v103_test001/Core" 
  -I"/home/milton/WorkRiscV/ch32v_ws001/ch32v103_test001/User" 
  -I"/home/milton/WorkRiscV/ch32v_ws001/ch32v103_test001/Peripheral/inc" 
  -std=gnu99 
  -MMD
  -MP
  -MF"Peripheral/src/ch32v10x_crc.d"
  -MT"Peripheral/src/ch32v10x_crc.o"
  -c
  -o "Peripheral/src/ch32v10x_crc.o"
  "../Peripheral/src/ch32v10x_crc.c"

各参数的说明, 引自 RISC-V-Options, GCC C Dialect Options GCC Preprocessor Options

-march=ISA-string 设置指令集架构

Generate code for given RISC-V ISA (e.g. ‘rv64im’). ISA strings must be lower-case. Examples include ‘rv64i’, ‘rv32g’, ‘rv32e’, and ‘rv32imaf’.

When -march= is not specified, use the setting from -mcpu.

If both -march and -mcpu= are not specified, the default for this argument is system dependent, users who want a specific architecture extensions should specify one explicitly.

-mabi=ABI-string 设置应用程序二进制接口

Specify integer and floating-point calling convention. ABI-string contains two parts: the size of integer types and the registers used for floating-point types. For example ‘-march=rv64ifd -mabi=lp64d’ means that ‘long’ and pointers are 64-bit (implicitly defining ‘int’ to be 32-bit), and that floating-point values up to 64 bits wide are passed in F registers. Contrast this with ‘-march=rv64ifd -mabi=lp64f’, which still allows the compiler to generate code that uses the F and D extensions but only allows floating-point values up to 32 bits long to be passed in registers; or ‘-march=rv64ifd -mabi=lp64’, in which no floating-point arguments will be passed in registers.

The default for this argument is system dependent, users who want a specific calling convention should specify one explicitly. The valid calling conventions are: ‘ilp32’, ‘ilp32f’, ‘ilp32d’, ‘lp64’, ‘lp64f’, and ‘lp64d’. Some calling conventions are impossible to implement on some ISAs: for example, ‘-march=rv32if -mabi=ilp32d’ is invalid because the ABI requires 64-bit values be passed in F registers, but F registers are only 32 bits wide. There is also the ‘ilp32e’ ABI that can only be used with the ‘rv32e’ architecture. This ABI is not well specified at present, and is subject to change.

-msmall-data-limit=n 将小于n字节的全局和静态数据放到一个特定区域

Put global and static data smaller than n bytes into a special section (on some targets).

-mno-save-restore

Do or don’t use smaller but slower prologue and epilogue code that uses library function calls. The default is to use fast inline prologues and epilogues.

-Os 尺寸优化

Optimize for size. -Os enables all -O2 optimizations except those that often increase code size:

-falign-functions  -falign-jumps 
-falign-labels  -falign-loops 
-fprefetch-loop-arrays  -freorder-blocks-algorithm=stc

-fmessage-length=n

Try to format error messages so that they fit on lines of about n characters. If n is zero, then no line-wrapping is done; each error message appears on a single line. This is the default for all front ends.

Note – this option also affects the display of the ‘#error’ and ‘#warning’ pre-processor directives, and the ‘deprecated’ function/type/variable attribute. It does not however affect the ‘pragma GCC warning’ and ‘pragma GCC error’ pragmas.

-fsigned-char

Let the type char be signed, like signed char.

Note that this is equivalent to -fno-unsigned-char, which is the negative form of -funsigned-char. Likewise, the option -fno-signed-char is equivalent to -funsigned-char.

-ffunction-sections, -fdata-sections

Place each function or data item into its own section in the output file if the target supports arbitrary sections. The name of the function or the name of the data item determines the section’s name in the output file.

Use these options on systems where the linker can perform optimizations to improve locality of reference in the instruction space. Most systems using the ELF object format have linkers with such optimizations. On AIX, the linker rearranges sections (CSECTs) based on the call graph. The performance impact varies.

Together with a linker garbage collection (linker –gc-sections option) these options may lead to smaller statically-linked executables (after stripping).

-Wunused

Warns, all the -Wunused options combined.

-Wuninitialized

Warn if an object with automatic or allocated storage duration is used without having been initialized. In C++, also warn if a non-static reference or non-static const member appears in a class without constructors.

-g

generates debug information to be used by GDB debugger.

  • -g0 no debug information
  • -g1 minimal debug information
  • -g default debug information
  • -g3 maximal debug information

-MD

-MD is equivalent to -M -MF file, except that -E is not implied. The driver determines file based on whether an -o option is given. If it is, the driver uses its argument but with a suffix of .d, otherwise it takes the name of the input file, removes any directory components and suffix, and applies a .d suffix.

-MMD

Like -MD except mention only user header files, not system header files.

-MP

This option instructs CPP to add a phony target for each dependency other than the main file, causing each to depend on nothing. These dummy rules work around errors make gives if you remove header files without updating the Makefile to match.

This is typical output:

test.o: test.c test.h
test.h:

-MF file

When used with -M or -MM, specifies a file to write the dependencies to. If no -MF switch is given the preprocessor sends the rules to the same place it would send preprocessed output.

When used with the driver options -MD or -MMD, -MF overrides the default dependency output file.

If file is -, then the dependencies are written to stdout.

-MT target

Change the target of the rule emitted by dependency generation. By default CPP takes the name of the main input file, deletes any directory components and any file suffix such as ‘.c’, and appends the platform’s usual object suffix. The result is the target.

An -MT option sets the target to be exactly the string you specify. If you want multiple targets, you can specify them as a single argument to -MT, or use multiple -MT options.

For example, -MT ‘$(objpfx)foo.o’ might give

$(objpfx)foo.o: foo.c

烧录命令

# 擦写
./openocd -f wch-riscv.cfg -c init -c halt -c "flash erase_sector wch_riscv 0 last " -c exit
# 写入
./openocd -f wch-riscv.cfg -c init -c halt -c "program ./obj/ch32v103_test001.elf" -c exit
# 校验
./openocd -f wch-riscv.cfg -c init -c halt -c "verify_image ./obj/ch32v103_test001.elf" -c exit
# 重置,运行
./openocd -f wch-riscv.cfg -c init -c halt -c wlink_reset_resume -c exit

烧录命令执行记录

milton@/OpenOCD/bin$ ./openocd -f wch-riscv.cfg -c init -c halt -c "flash erase_sector wch_riscv 0 last " -c exit
Open On-Chip Debugger 0.11.0+dev-02215-gcc0ecfb6d-dirty (2022-06-23-10:21)
Licensed under GNU GPL v2
For bug reports, read
  http://openocd.org/doc/doxygen/bugs.html
Info : only one transport option; autoselect 'jtag'
Ready for Remote Connections
Info : WCH-Link-CH549  mod:RV version 2.5 
Info : wlink_init ok
Info : This adapter doesn't support configurable speed
Info : JTAG tap: riscv.cpu tap/device found: 0x00000001 (mfg: 0x000 (<invalid>), part: 0x0000, ver: 0x0)
Warn : Bypassing JTAG setup events due to errors
Info : [riscv.cpu.0] datacount=2 progbufsize=8
Info : Examined RISC-V core; found 1 harts
Info :  hart 0: XLEN=32, misa=0x0
[riscv.cpu.0] Target successfully examined.
Info : starting gdb server for riscv.cpu.0 on 3333
Info : Listening on port 3333 for gdb connections
Info : device id = 0x3c83abcd
Info : flash size = 64kbytes
erased sectors 0 through 63 on flash bank 0 in 0.019672s

milton@/OpenOCD/bin$ ./openocd -f wch-riscv.cfg -c init -c halt -c "program ch32v103_test001/obj/ch32v103_test001.elf" -c exit
Open On-Chip Debugger 0.11.0+dev-02215-gcc0ecfb6d-dirty (2022-06-23-10:21)
Licensed under GNU GPL v2
For bug reports, read
  http://openocd.org/doc/doxygen/bugs.html
Info : only one transport option; autoselect 'jtag'
Ready for Remote Connections
Info : WCH-Link-CH549  mod:RV version 2.5 
Info : wlink_init ok
Info : This adapter doesn't support configurable speed
Info : JTAG tap: riscv.cpu tap/device found: 0x00000001 (mfg: 0x000 (<invalid>), part: 0x0000, ver: 0x0)
Warn : Bypassing JTAG setup events due to errors
Info : [riscv.cpu.0] datacount=2 progbufsize=8
Info : Vector support with vlenb=0
Info : Examined RISC-V core; found 1 harts
Info :  hart 0: XLEN=32, misa=0xffffffff
[riscv.cpu.0] Target successfully examined.
Info : starting gdb server for riscv.cpu.0 on 3333
Info : Listening on port 3333 for gdb connections
Info : JTAG tap: riscv.cpu tap/device found: 0x00000001 (mfg: 0x000 (<invalid>), part: 0x0000, ver: 0x0)
Warn : Bypassing JTAG setup events due to errors
** Programming Started **
Info : device id = 0x3c83abcd
Info : flash size = 64kbytes
** Programming Finished **

milton@/OpenOCD/bin$ ./openocd -f wch-riscv.cfg -c init -c halt -c "verify_image ch32v103_test001/obj/ch32v103_test001.elf" -c exit
Open On-Chip Debugger 0.11.0+dev-02215-gcc0ecfb6d-dirty (2022-06-23-10:21)
Licensed under GNU GPL v2
For bug reports, read
  http://openocd.org/doc/doxygen/bugs.html
Info : only one transport option; autoselect 'jtag'
Ready for Remote Connections
Info : WCH-Link-CH549  mod:RV version 2.5 
Info : wlink_init ok
Info : This adapter doesn't support configurable speed
Info : JTAG tap: riscv.cpu tap/device found: 0x00000001 (mfg: 0x000 (<invalid>), part: 0x0000, ver: 0x0)
Warn : Bypassing JTAG setup events due to errors
Info : [riscv.cpu.0] datacount=2 progbufsize=8
Info : Vector support with vlenb=0
Info : Examined RISC-V core; found 1 harts
Info :  hart 0: XLEN=32, misa=0xffffffff
[riscv.cpu.0] Target successfully examined.
Info : starting gdb server for riscv.cpu.0 on 3333
Info : Listening on port 3333 for gdb connections
Info : Verify Success

milton@/OpenOCD/bin$ ./openocd -f wch-riscv.cfg -c init -c halt -c wlink_reset_resume -c exit
Open On-Chip Debugger 0.11.0+dev-02215-gcc0ecfb6d-dirty (2022-06-23-10:21)
Licensed under GNU GPL v2
For bug reports, read
  http://openocd.org/doc/doxygen/bugs.html
Info : only one transport option; autoselect 'jtag'
Ready for Remote Connections
Info : WCH-Link-CH549  mod:RV version 2.5 
Info : wlink_init ok
Info : This adapter doesn't support configurable speed
Info : JTAG tap: riscv.cpu tap/device found: 0x00000001 (mfg: 0x000 (<invalid>), part: 0x0000, ver: 0x0)
Warn : Bypassing JTAG setup events due to errors
Info : [riscv.cpu.0] datacount=2 progbufsize=8
Info : Examined RISC-V core; found 1 harts
Info :  hart 0: XLEN=32, misa=0x0
[riscv.cpu.0] Target successfully examined.
Info : starting gdb server for riscv.cpu.0 on 3333
Info : Listening on port 3333 for gdb connections
张贴在2