字符串压缩(二)之LZ4

  本文来自博客园,作者:T-BARBARIANS,转载请注明原文链接:https://www.cnblogs.com/t-bar/p/16451185.html 谢谢!

 

  上一篇对google精品ZSTD的压缩、解压缩方法,压缩、解压缩的性能表现,以及多线程压缩的使用方法进行了介绍。

  本篇,我们从类似的角度,看看LZ4有如何表现。

一、LZ4压缩与解压

  LZ4有两个压缩函数。默认压缩函数原型:

  int LZ4_compress_default(const char* src, char* dst, int srcSize, int dstCapacity);

  快速压缩函数原型:

  int LZ4_compress_fast (const char* src, char* dst, int srcSize, int dstCapacity, int acceleration);

  快速压缩函数acceleration的参数范围:[1 ~ LZ4_ACCELERATION_MAX],其中LZ4_ACCELERATION_MAX为65537。什么意思呢,简单的说就是acceleration值越大,压缩速率越快,但是压缩比就越低,后面我会用实验数据来进行说明。

  另外,当acceleration = 1时,就是简化版的LZ4_compress_defaultLZ4_compress_default函数默认acceleration = 1。

 

  LZ4也有两个解缩函数。安全解缩函数原型:

  int LZ4_decompress_safe (const char* src, char* dst, int compressedSize, int dstCapacity);

  快速解缩函数原型:
  int LZ4_decompress_fast (const char* src, char* dst, int originalSize);

  快速解压函数不建议使用。因为LZ4_decompress_fast 缺少被压缩后的文本长度参数,被认为是不安全的,LZ4建议使用LZ4_decompress_safe。

  同样,我们先来看看LZ4的压缩与解压缩示例。

 1 #include <stdio.h>
 2 #include <string.h>
 3 #include <sys/time.h>
 4 #include <malloc.h>
 5 #include <lz4.h>
 6 #include <iostream>
 7 
 8 using namespace std;
 9 
10 int main()
11 {
12     char peppa_pig_buf[2048] = "Narrator: It is raining today. So, Peppa and George cannot \
13     play outside.Peppa: Daddy, it's stopped raining. Can we go out to play?Daddy: Alright, \
14     run along you two.Narrator: Peppa loves jumping in muddy puddles.Peppa: I love muddy puddles.\
15     Mummy: Peppa. If you jumping in muddy puddles, you must wear your boots.Peppa: Sorry, Mummy.\
16     Narrator: George likes to jump in muddy puddles, too.Peppa: George. If you jump in muddy \
17     puddles, you must wear your boots.Narrator: Peppa likes to look after her little brother, \
18     George.Peppa: George, let's find some more pud dles.Narrator: Peppa and George are having \
19     a lot of fun. Peppa has found a lttle puddle. George hasfound a big puddle.Peppa: Look, \
20     George. There's a really big puddle.Narrator: George wants to jump into the big puddle first.\
21     Peppa: Stop, George. | must check if it's safe for you. Good. It is safe for you. \
22     Sorry, George. It'sonly mud.Narrator: Peppa and George love jumping in muddy puddles.\
23     Peppa: Come on, George. Let's go and show Daddy.Daddy: Goodness me.Peppa: Daddy. Daddy. \
24     Guess what we' ve been doing.Daddy: Let me think... Have you been wa tching television?\
25     Peppa: No. No. Daddy.Daddy: Have you just had a bath?Peppa: No. No.Daddy: | know. \
26     You've been jumping in muddy puddles.Peppa: Yes. Yes. Daddy. We've been jumping in muddy \
27     puddles.Daddy: Ho. Ho. And look at the mess you're in.Peppa: Oooh....Daddy: Oh, well, \
28     it's only mud. Let's clean up quickly before Mummy sees the mess.Peppa: Daddy, \
29     when we've cleaned up, will you and Mummy Come and play, too?Daddy: Yes, we can all play \
30     in the garden.Narrator: Peppa and George are wearing their boots. Mummy and Daddy are \
31     wearing their boots.Peppa loves jumping up and down in muddy puddles. Everyone loves jumping \
32     up and down inmuddy puddles.Mummy: Oh, Daddy pig, look at the mess you're in. .Peppa: \
33     It's only mud.";
34 
35     size_t com_space_size;
36     size_t peppa_pig_text_size;
37 
38     char *com_ptr = NULL;
39 
40     // compress
41     peppa_pig_text_size = strlen(peppa_pig_buf);
42     com_space_size = LZ4_compressBound(peppa_pig_text_size);
43     
44     com_ptr = (char *)malloc(com_space_size);
45     if(NULL == com_ptr) {
46         cout << "compress malloc failed" << endl;
47         return -1;
48     }
49 
50     memset(com_ptr, 0, com_space_size);
51 
52     size_t com_size;
53     //com_size = LZ4_compress_default(peppa_pig_buf, com_ptr, peppa_pig_text_size, com_space_size);
54     com_size = LZ4_compress_fast(peppa_pig_buf, com_ptr, peppa_pig_text_size, com_space_size, 1);
55     cout << "peppa pig text size:" << peppa_pig_text_size << endl;
56     cout << "compress text size:" << com_size << endl;
57     cout << "compress ratio:" << (float)peppa_pig_text_size / (float)com_size << endl << endl;
58 
59 
60     // decompress
61     size_t decom_size;
62     char* decom_ptr = NULL;
63     
64     decom_ptr = (char *)malloc((size_t)peppa_pig_text_size);
65     if(NULL == decom_ptr) {
66         cout << "decompress malloc failed" << endl;
67         return -1;
68     }
69 
70     decom_size = LZ4_decompress_safe(com_ptr, decom_ptr, com_size, peppa_pig_text_size);
71     cout << "decompress text size:" << decom_size << endl;
72 
73     // use decompress buf compare with origin buf
74     if(strncmp(peppa_pig_buf, decom_ptr, peppa_pig_text_size)) {
75         cout << "decompress text is not equal peppa pig text" << endl;
76     }
77     
78     free(com_ptr);
79     free(decom_ptr);
80     return 0;
81 }

执行结果:

  从结果可以发现,压缩之前的peppa pig文本长度为1848,压缩后的文本长度为1125(上一篇ZSTD为759),压缩率为1.6,解压后的长度与压缩前相等。相同文本情况下,压缩率低于ZSTD的2.4。从文本被压缩后的长度表现来说,LZ4比ZSTD要差。

  下图图1是LZ4随着acceleration的递增,文本被压缩后的长度与acceleration的关系。随着acceleration的递增,文本被压缩后的长度越来越长。

图1

  图2是LZ4随着acceleration的递增,压缩率acceleration的关系。随着acceleration的递增,压缩率也越来越低。

 图2

  这是为什么呢?还是上一篇提到的 鱼(性能)和熊掌(压缩比)的关系。获得了压缩的高性能,失去了算法的压缩率。

二、LZ4压缩性能探索

  接下来摸索一下LZ4的压缩性能,以及LZ4在不同acceleration级别下的压缩性能。

  测试方法是,使用LZ4_compress_fast,连续压缩同一段文本并持续10秒。每一次分别使用不同的acceleration级别,最后得到每一种acceleration级别下每秒的平均压缩速率。测试压缩性能的代码示例如下:

 1 #include <stdio.h>
 2 #include <string.h>
 3 #include <sys/time.h>
 4 #include <malloc.h>
 5 #include <lz4.h>
 6 #include <iostream>
 7 
 8 using namespace std;
 9 
10 int main()
11 {
12     char peppa_pig_buf[2048] = "Narrator: It is raining today. So, Peppa and George cannot \
13     play outside.Peppa: Daddy, it's stopped raining. Can we go out to play?Daddy: Alright, \
14     run along you two.Narrator: Peppa loves jumping in muddy puddles.Peppa: I love muddy puddles.\
15     Mummy: Peppa. If you jumping in muddy puddles, you must wear your boots.Peppa: Sorry, Mummy.\
16     Narrator: George likes to jump in muddy puddles, too.Peppa: George. If you jump in muddy \
17     puddles, you must wear your boots.Narrator: Peppa likes to look after her little brother, \
18     George.Peppa: George, let's find some more pud dles.Narrator: Peppa and George are having \
19     a lot of fun. Peppa has found a lttle puddle. George hasfound a big puddle.Peppa: Look, \
20     George. There's a really big puddle.Narrator: George wants to jump into the big puddle first.\
21     Peppa: Stop, George. | must check if it's safe for you. Good. It is safe for you. \
22     Sorry, George. It'sonly mud.Narrator: Peppa and George love jumping in muddy puddles.\
23     Peppa: Come on, George. Let's go and show Daddy.Daddy: Goodness me.Peppa: Daddy. Daddy. \
24     Guess what we' ve been doing.Daddy: Let me think... Have you been wa tching television?\
25     Peppa: No. No. Daddy.Daddy: Have you just had a bath?Peppa: No. No.Daddy: | know. \
26     You've been jumping in muddy puddles.Peppa: Yes. Yes. Daddy. We've been jumping in muddy \
27     puddles.Daddy: Ho. Ho. And look at the mess you're in.Peppa: Oooh....Daddy: Oh, well, \
28     it's only mud. Let's clean up quickly before Mummy sees the mess.Peppa: Daddy, \
29     when we've cleaned up, will you and Mummy Come and play, too?Daddy: Yes, we can all play \
30     in the garden.Narrator: Peppa and George are wearing their boots. Mummy and Daddy are \
31     wearing their boots.Peppa loves jumping up and down in muddy puddles. Everyone loves jumping \
32     up and down inmuddy puddles.Mummy: Oh, Daddy pig, look at the mess you're in. .Peppa: \
33     It's only mud.";
34 
35     int cnt = 0;
36     
37     size_t com_size;
38     size_t com_space_size;
39     size_t peppa_pig_text_size;
40 
41     timeval st, et;
42     char *com_ptr = NULL;
43 
44     peppa_pig_text_size = strlen(peppa_pig_buf);
45     com_space_size = LZ4_compressBound(peppa_pig_text_size);
46 
47     int test_times = 6;
48     int acceleration = 1;
49     
50     // compress performance test
51     while(test_times >= 1) {
52     
53         gettimeofday(&st, NULL);
54         while(1) {
55         
56             com_ptr = (char *)malloc(com_space_size);
57             if(NULL == com_ptr) {
58                 cout << "compress malloc failed" << endl;
59                 return -1;
60             }
61             
62             com_size = LZ4_compress_fast(peppa_pig_buf, com_ptr, peppa_pig_text_size, com_space_size, acceleration);
63             if(com_size <= 0) {
64                 cout << "compress failed, error code:" << com_size << endl;
65                 free(com_ptr);
66                 return -1;
67             }
68             
69             free(com_ptr);
70         
71             cnt++;
72             gettimeofday(&et, NULL);
73             if(et.tv_sec - st.tv_sec >= 10) {
74                 break;
75             }
76         }
77         
78         cout << "acceleration:" << acceleration << ", compress per second:" << cnt/10 << " times" << endl;
79 
80         ++acceleration;
81         --test_times;
82     }
83 
84     return 0;
85 }

执行结果:

 

  结果可以总结为两点:一是acceleration为默认值1时,即LZ4_compress_default函数的默认值时,每秒的压缩性能在20W+;二是随着acceleration的递增,每秒的压缩性能也在递增,但是代价就是获得更低的压缩率。

  acceleration递增与压缩速率的关系如下图所示:

 图3

三、LZ4解压性能探索

  接下来继续了解一下LZ4的解压性能。

  测试方法是先使用LZ4_compress_fastacceleration = 1压缩文本,再使用安全解压函数LZ4_decompress_safe,连续解压同一段文本并持续10秒,最后得到每秒的平均解压速率。测试解压性能的代码示例如下:

 1 #include <stdio.h>
 2 #include <string.h>
 3 #include <sys/time.h>
 4 #include <malloc.h>
 5 #include <lz4.h>
 6 #include <iostream>
 7 
 8 using namespace std;
 9 
10 int main()
11 {
12     char peppa_pig_buf[2048] = "Narrator: It is raining today. So, Peppa and George cannot \
13     play outside.Peppa: Daddy, it's stopped raining. Can we go out to play?Daddy: Alright, \
14     run along you two.Narrator: Peppa loves jumping in muddy puddles.Peppa: I love muddy puddles.\
15     Mummy: Peppa. If you jumping in muddy puddles, you must wear your boots.Peppa: Sorry, Mummy.\
16     Narrator: George likes to jump in muddy puddles, too.Peppa: George. If you jump in muddy \
17     puddles, you must wear your boots.Narrator: Peppa likes to look after her little brother, \
18     George.Peppa: George, let's find some more pud dles.Narrator: Peppa and George are having \
19     a lot of fun. Peppa has found a lttle puddle. George hasfound a big puddle.Peppa: Look, \
20     George. There's a really big puddle.Narrator: George wants to jump into the big puddle first.\
21     Peppa: Stop, George. | must check if it's safe for you. Good. It is safe for you. \
22     Sorry, George. It'sonly mud.Narrator: Peppa and George love jumping in muddy puddles.\
23     Peppa: Come on, George. Let's go and show Daddy.Daddy: Goodness me.Peppa: Daddy. Daddy. \
24     Guess what we' ve been doing.Daddy: Let me think... Have you been wa tching television?\
25     Peppa: No. No. Daddy.Daddy: Have you just had a bath?Peppa: No. No.Daddy: | know. \
26     You've been jumping in muddy puddles.Peppa: Yes. Yes. Daddy. We've been jumping in muddy \
27     puddles.Daddy: Ho. Ho. And look at the mess you're in.Peppa: Oooh....Daddy: Oh, well, \
28     it's only mud. Let's clean up quickly before Mummy sees the mess.Peppa: Daddy, \
29     when we've cleaned up, will you and Mummy Come and play, too?Daddy: Yes, we can all play \
30     in the garden.Narrator: Peppa and George are wearing their boots. Mummy and Daddy are \
31     wearing their boots.Peppa loves jumping up and down in muddy puddles. Everyone loves jumping \
32     up and down inmuddy puddles.Mummy: Oh, Daddy pig, look at the mess you're in. .Peppa: \
33     It's only mud.";
34 
35     int cnt = 0;
36     
37     size_t com_size;
38     size_t com_space_size;
39     size_t peppa_pig_text_size;
40 
41     timeval st, et;
42     char *com_ptr = NULL;
43 
44     // compress
45     peppa_pig_text_size = strlen(peppa_pig_buf);
46     com_space_size = LZ4_compressBound(peppa_pig_text_size);
47 
48     com_ptr = (char *)malloc(com_space_size);
49     if(NULL == com_ptr) {
50         cout << "compress malloc failed" << endl;
51         return -1;
52     }
53 
54     com_size = LZ4_compress_fast(peppa_pig_buf, com_ptr, peppa_pig_text_size, com_space_size, 1);
55     if(com_size <= 0) {
56         cout << "compress failed, error code:" << com_size << endl;
57         free(com_ptr);
58         return -1;
59     }
60 
61     // decompress
62     size_t decom_size;
63     char* decom_ptr = NULL;
64     
65     // decompress performance test
66     gettimeofday(&st, NULL);
67     while(1) {
68 
69         decom_ptr = (char *)malloc((size_t)peppa_pig_text_size);
70         if(NULL == decom_ptr) {
71             cout << "decompress malloc failed" << endl;
72             free(com_ptr);
73             return -1;
74         }
75         
76         decom_size = LZ4_decompress_safe(com_ptr, decom_ptr, com_size, peppa_pig_text_size);
77         if(decom_size <= 0) {
78             cout << "decompress failed, error code:" << decom_size << endl;
79             free(com_ptr);
80             free(decom_ptr);
81             return -1;
82         }
83 
84         free(decom_ptr);
85 
86         cnt++;
87         gettimeofday(&et, NULL);
88         if(et.tv_sec - st.tv_sec >= 10) {
89             break;
90         }
91     }
92 
93     free(com_ptr);
94     cout << "decompress per second:" << cnt/10 << " times" << endl;
95     
96     return 0;
97 }

执行结果:

   结果显示LZ4的解压性能大概在每秒54W次左右,解压速率还是非常可观。

四、LZ4对比ZSTD

  使用相同的待压缩文本,分别使用ZSTD与LZ4进行压缩、解压、压缩性能、解压性能测试后有表1的数据。

表1

  

  抛开算法的优劣对比,从实验结果来看,ZSTD更加侧重于压缩率,LZ4(acceleration = 1)更加侧重于压缩性能。

五、总结

  无论任何算法,都很难做到既有高性能压缩的同时,又有特别高的压缩率。两者必须要做一个取舍,或者找到一个合适的平衡点。

  如果在性能可以接受的情况下,选择具有更高压缩率的ZSTD将更加节约存储空间(通过线程池进行多线程压缩可以进一步提升性能);如果对压缩率不是特别看中,追求更高的压缩性能,那LZ4也是一个不错的选择。

  最后,看到这里是不是觉得任何长度的字符串都可以被ZSTD、LZ4之类的压缩算压缩得很好呢?欲知后事如何,请听下回分解!码字不易,还请各位技术爱好者登录点个赞呀!

 

  本文来自博客园,作者:T-BARBARIANS,转载请注明原文链接:https://www.cnblogs.com/t-bar/p/16451185.html 谢谢!

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