快速安装 kafka 集群

前言

最近因为工作原因,需要安装一个 kafka 集群,目前网络上有很多相关的教程,按着步骤来也能完成安装,只是这些教程都显得略微繁琐。因此,我写了这篇文章帮助大家快速完成 kafka 集群安装。
 

安装步骤

准备多台服务器,数量建议为奇数(如:3,5,7 等),操作系统为 CentOS 7+。

这里使用 3 台服务器作为例子,IP 分别为 192.168.1.1、192.168.1.2、192.168.1.3,修改下述脚本文件的 IP 地址,并拷贝到 3 台服务器上分别执行即可完成安装。


#!/bin/bash

# Modify the link if you want to download other version
KAFKA_DOWNLOAD_URL="https://dlcdn.apache.org/kafka/3.1.0/kafka_2.13-3.1.0.tgz"

# Please use your own server ip
SERVERS=("192.168.1.1" "192.168.1.2" "192.168.1.3")


ID=0

MECHINE_IP=$(hostname -i)
echo "Mechine IP: "${MECHINE_IP}

LENGTH=${#SERVERS[@]}

for (( i=0; i<${LENGTH}; i++ ));
do
    if [ "${SERVERS[$i]}" = "${MECHINE_IP}" ]; then
        ID=$((i+1))
    fi
done

echo "ID: "${ID}

if [ "${ID}" -eq "0" ]; then
  echo "Mechine IP is not matched to server list"
  exit 1
fi

ZOOKEEPER_CONNECT=$(printf ",%s:2181" "${SERVERS[@]}")
ZOOKEEPER_CONNECT=${ZOOKEEPER_CONNECT:1}
echo "Zookeeper Connect: "${ZOOKEEPER_CONNECT}


echo "---------- Update yum ----------"
yum update -y
yum install -y wget


echo "---------- Install java ----------"
yum -y install java-1.8.0-openjdk
java -version


echo "---------- Create kafka user & group ----------"
groupadd -r kafka
useradd -g kafka -r kafka -s /bin/false


echo "---------- Download kafka ----------"
cd /opt
wget ${KAFKA_DOWNLOAD_URL} -O kafka.tgz
mkdir -p kafka
tar -xzf kafka.tgz -C kafka --strip-components=1
chown -R kafka:kafka /opt/kafka


echo "---------- Install and start zookeeper ----------"
mkdir -p /data/zookeeper
chown -R kafka:kafka /data/zookeeper
echo "${ID}" > /data/zookeeper/myid


# zookeeper config
# https://zookeeper.apache.org/doc/r3.1.2/zookeeperAdmin.html#sc_configuration
cat <<EOF > /opt/kafka/config/zookeeper-cluster.properties
# the directory where the snapshot is stored.
dataDir=/data/zookeeper

# the port at which the clients will connect
clientPort=2181

# setting number of connections to unlimited
maxClientCnxns=0

# keeps a heartbeat of zookeeper in milliseconds
tickTime=2000

# time for initial synchronization
initLimit=10

# how many ticks can pass before timeout
syncLimit=5

# define servers ip and internal ports to zookeeper
EOF

for (( i=0; i<${LENGTH}; i++ ));
do
    INDEX=$((i+1))
    echo "server.${INDEX}=${SERVERS[$i]}:2888:3888" >> /opt/kafka/config/zookeeper-cluster.properties
done


# zookeeper.service
cat <<EOF > /usr/lib/systemd/system/zookeeper.service
[Unit]
Description=Apache Zookeeper server (Kafka)
Documentation=http://zookeeper.apache.org
Requires=network.target remote-fs.target
After=network.target remote-fs.target

[Service]
Type=simple
User=kafka
Group=kafka
ExecStart=/opt/kafka/bin/zookeeper-server-start.sh /opt/kafka/config/zookeeper-cluster.properties
ExecStop=/opt/kafka/bin/zookeeper-server-stop.sh
Restart=on-failure

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start zookeeper && systemctl enable zookeeper


echo "---------- Install and start kafka ----------"
mkdir -p /data/kafka
chown -R kafka:kafka /data/kafka


# kafka config
# https://kafka.apache.org/documentation/#configuration
cat <<EOF > /opt/kafka/config/server-cluster.properties
# The id of the broker. This must be set to a unique integer for each broker.
broker.id=${ID}

# Hostname and port the broker will advertise to producers and consumers. If not set,
# it uses the value for "listeners" if configured.  Otherwise, it will use the value
# returned from java.net.InetAddress.getCanonicalHostName().
advertised.listeners=PLAINTEXT://${MECHINE_IP}:9092

# A comma separated list of directories under which to store log files
log.dirs=/data/kafka

# The default number of log partitions per topic. More partitions allow greater
# parallelism for consumption, but this will also result in more files across
# the brokers.
num.partitions=1

# The replication factor for the group metadata internal topics "__consumer_offsets" and "__transaction_state"
# For anything other than development testing, a value greater than 1 is recommended to ensure availability such as 3.
offsets.topic.replication.factor=1
transaction.state.log.replication.factor=1
transaction.state.log.min.isr=1

# The minimum age of a log file to be eligible for deletion due to age
log.retention.hours=168

# The maximum size of a log segment file. When this size is reached a new log segment will be created.
log.segment.bytes=1073741824

# The interval at which log segments are checked to see if they can be deleted according
# to the retention policies
log.retention.check.interval.ms=300000

# Zookeeper connection string (see zookeeper docs for details).
# This is a comma separated host:port pairs, each corresponding to a zk
# server. e.g. "127.0.0.1:3000,127.0.0.1:3001,127.0.0.1:3002".
# You can also append an optional chroot string to the urls to specify the
# root directory for all kafka znodes.
zookeeper.connect=${ZOOKEEPER_CONNECT}/kafka

# Timeout in ms for connecting to zookeeper
zookeeper.connection.timeout.ms=60000
EOF


# kafka.service
cat <<EOF > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kafka.service
[Unit]
Description=Apache Kafka server (broker)
Documentation=http://kafka.apache.org/documentation.html
Requires=network.target remote-fs.target
After=network.target remote-fs.target kafka-zookeeper.service
 
[Service]
Type=simple
User=kafka
Group=kafka
ExecStart=/opt/kafka/bin/kafka-server-start.sh /opt/kafka/config/server-cluster.properties
ExecStop=/opt/kafka/bin/kafka-server-stop.sh
Restart=on-failure
 
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kafka && systemctl enable kafka

setup.sh

 

基本操作

# 启动 zookeeper
systemctl start zookeeper

# 停止 zookeeper
systemctl stop zookeeper

# 重启 zookeeper
systemctl restart zookeeper

# 查看 zookeeper 日志
systemctl status zookeeper -l

# 启动 kafka
systemctl start kafka

# 停止 kafka
systemctl stop kafka

# 重启 kafka
systemctl restart kafka

# 查看 kafka 日志
systemctl status kafka -l

 

简单测试

# 进入 kafka bin 目录
cd /opt/kafka/bin/

# 创建一个 topic
kafka-topics.sh --create --topic test --partitions 3 --replication-factor 1 --bootstrap-server localhost:9092

# 查看 topic 描述
kafka-topics.sh --topic test --describe --bootstrap-server localhost:9092

# 启动生产者然后输入消息
kafka-console-producer.sh --topic test --bootstrap-server localhost:9092

# 启动消费者消费消息
kafka-console-consumer.sh --topic test --from-beginning --bootstrap-server localhost:9092

# 删除 topic
kafka-topics.sh --topic test --delete --bootstrap-server localhost:9092

 

脚本说明

1. 以下代码主要指定下载 kafka 的版本以及服务器 IP 列表,可根据实际情况进行调整。

# Modify the link if you want to download other version
KAFKA_DOWNLOAD_URL="https://dlcdn.apache.org/kafka/3.1.0/kafka_2.13-3.1.0.tgz"

# Please use your own server ip
SERVERS=("192.168.1.1" "192.168.1.2" "192.168.1.3")

 

2. 以下代码主要用于生成 zookeeper id 和 kafka broker id 以及拼接 kafka 配置中的 zookeeper 连接串,通过本机 IP 与填写的 IP 列表进行匹配,如果本机 IP 等于第一个服务器 IP,则 ID为 1,等于第二个服务器 IP,则 ID为 2,等于第二个服务器 IP,则 ID为 3,以此类推;本机 IP 不在填写的 IP 列表中,则会退出安装。

ID=0

MECHINE_IP=$(hostname -i)
echo "Mechine IP: "${MECHINE_IP}

LENGTH=${#SERVERS[@]}

for (( i=0; i<${LENGTH}; i++ ));
do
    if [ "${SERVERS[$i]}" = "${MECHINE_IP}" ]; then
        ID=$((i+1))
    fi
done

echo "ID: "${ID}

if [ "${ID}" -eq "0" ]; then
  echo "Mechine IP is not matched to server list"
  exit 1
fi

ZOOKEEPER_CONNECT=$(printf ",%s:2181" "${SERVERS[@]}")
ZOOKEEPER_CONNECT=${ZOOKEEPER_CONNECT:1}

  

3. 更新 yum 源,并安装 wget 下载工具

yum update -y
yum install -y wget

  

4. 安装 java 8

yum -y install java-1.8.0-openjdk
java -version

  

5. 创建 kafka 用户及组

groupadd -r kafka
useradd -g kafka -r kafka -s /bin/false

  

6. 下载并解压 kafka 可执行程序

cd /opt
wget ${KAFKA_DOWNLOAD_URL} -O kafka.tgz
mkdir -p kafka
tar -xzf kafka.tgz -C kafka --strip-components=1
chown -R kafka:kafka /opt/kafka

  

7. 创建 zookeeper 目录,创建 zookeeper id

mkdir -p /data/zookeeper
chown -R kafka:kafka /data/zookeeper
echo "${ID}" > /data/zookeeper/myid

  

8. 生成 zookeeper 配置文件,详细说明可参考:https://zookeeper.apache.org/doc/r3.1.2/zookeeperAdmin.html#sc_configuration

cat <<EOF > /opt/kafka/config/zookeeper-cluster.properties
# the directory where the snapshot is stored.
dataDir=/data/zookeeper

# the port at which the clients will connect
clientPort=2181

# setting number of connections to unlimited
maxClientCnxns=0

# keeps a heartbeat of zookeeper in milliseconds
tickTime=2000

# time for initial synchronization
initLimit=10

# how many ticks can pass before timeout
syncLimit=5

# define servers ip and internal ports to zookeeper
EOF

for (( i=0; i<${LENGTH}; i++ ));
do
    INDEX=$((i+1))
    echo "server.${INDEX}=${SERVERS[$i]}:2888:3888" >> /opt/kafka/config/zookeeper-cluster.properties
done

  

9. 创建 zookeeper systemd 管理文件,启动并设置开机启动 zookeeper

cat <<EOF > /usr/lib/systemd/system/zookeeper.service
[Unit]
Description=Apache Zookeeper server (Kafka)
Documentation=http://zookeeper.apache.org
Requires=network.target remote-fs.target
After=network.target remote-fs.target

[Service]
Type=simple
User=kafka
Group=kafka
ExecStart=/opt/kafka/bin/zookeeper-server-start.sh /opt/kafka/config/zookeeper-cluster.properties
ExecStop=/opt/kafka/bin/zookeeper-server-stop.sh
Restart=on-failure

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start zookeeper && systemctl enable zookeeper

  

10. 创建 kafka 目录

mkdir -p /data/kafka
chown -R kafka:kafka /data/kafka

  

11. 生成 kafka 配置文件,详细说明可参考:https://kafka.apache.org/documentation/#configuration

cat <<EOF > /opt/kafka/config/server-cluster.properties
# The id of the broker. This must be set to a unique integer for each broker.
broker.id=${ID}

# Hostname and port the broker will advertise to producers and consumers. If not set,
# it uses the value for "listeners" if configured.  Otherwise, it will use the value
# returned from java.net.InetAddress.getCanonicalHostName().
advertised.listeners=PLAINTEXT://${MECHINE_IP}:9092

# A comma separated list of directories under which to store log files
log.dirs=/data/kafka

# The default number of log partitions per topic. More partitions allow greater
# parallelism for consumption, but this will also result in more files across
# the brokers.
num.partitions=1

# The replication factor for the group metadata internal topics "__consumer_offsets" and "__transaction_state"
# For anything other than development testing, a value greater than 1 is recommended to ensure availability such as 3.
offsets.topic.replication.factor=1
transaction.state.log.replication.factor=1
transaction.state.log.min.isr=1

# The minimum age of a log file to be eligible for deletion due to age
log.retention.hours=168

# The maximum size of a log segment file. When this size is reached a new log segment will be created.
log.segment.bytes=1073741824

# The interval at which log segments are checked to see if they can be deleted according
# to the retention policies
log.retention.check.interval.ms=300000

# Zookeeper connection string (see zookeeper docs for details).
# This is a comma separated host:port pairs, each corresponding to a zk
# server. e.g. "127.0.0.1:3000,127.0.0.1:3001,127.0.0.1:3002".
# You can also append an optional chroot string to the urls to specify the
# root directory for all kafka znodes.
zookeeper.connect=${ZOOKEEPER_CONNECT}/kafka

# Timeout in ms for connecting to zookeeper
zookeeper.connection.timeout.ms=60000
EOF

  

12. 创建 kafka systemd 管理文件,启动并设置开机启动 kafka

cat <<EOF > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kafka.service
[Unit]
Description=Apache Kafka server (broker)
Documentation=http://kafka.apache.org/documentation.html
Requires=network.target remote-fs.target
After=network.target remote-fs.target kafka-zookeeper.service
 
[Service]
Type=simple
User=kafka
Group=kafka
ExecStart=/opt/kafka/bin/kafka-server-start.sh /opt/kafka/config/server-cluster.properties
ExecStop=/opt/kafka/bin/kafka-server-stop.sh
Restart=on-failure
 
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kafka && systemctl enable kafka

  

总结

按照上述的操作,你将快速完成 kafka 集群安装,如有问题可以在文章留言。

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