CEPH-4:ceph RadowGW对象存储功能详解

ceph RadosGW对象存储使用详解

一个完整的ceph集群,可以提供块存储、文件系统和对象存储。

本节主要介绍对象存储RadosGw功能如何灵活的使用,集群背景:

$ ceph -s 
  cluster:
    id:     f0a8789e-6d53-44fa-b76d-efa79bbebbcf
    health: HEALTH_OK
 
  services:
    mon: 1 daemons, quorum a (age 2d)
    mgr: a(active, since 2d)
    mds: cephfs:1 {0=cephfs-a=up:active} 1 up:standby-replay
    osd: 1 osds: 1 up (since 2d), 1 in (since 2d)
    rgw: 1 daemon active (my.store.a)
 
  data:
    pools:   10 pools, 200 pgs
    objects: 1.29k objects, 3.5 GiB
    usage:   60 GiB used, 798 GiB / 858 GiB avail
    pgs:     200 active+clean
 
  io:
    client:   852 B/s rd, 1 op/s rd, 0 op/s wr

什么是对象存储

  1. 对象存储,又称键值存储,通过其接口指令,例如简单的GET、PUT、DEL等,向存储服务上传下载数据;
  2. 对象存储中所有数据都被认为是一个对象。所以,任何数据都可以存入对象存储中,如图片、视频、音频等;
  3. 常见的对象存储厂商有Swift、S3等,ceph就支持Swift API和AWS S3两种标准。

ceph对象存储的构成

Ceph对象存储是通过 RGW组件 来实现,什么是 rgw 呢?

  1. rgw全称Rados Gateway,是一种服务,使客户端能够利用标准对象存储API来访问ceph对象网关;
  2. ceph 0.8版本之后使用Civeweb的web服务器来响应api请求,说白了,rgw里边就是一个web服务;
  3. 客户端使用http/https协议通过RESTful API与rgw通信;
  4. rgw通过librados与ceph集群通信,利用cephx加密协议与ceph存储通信;
  5. rgw通过bucket来实现数据存储和多用户的隔离;
  6. 可以部署多个rgw,实现负载均衡及高可用。

ceph RadosGW中有一个bucket桶的概念,一般项目或者分类会使用bucket来进行隔离,bucket的权限控制,想要操作某个bucket,操作用户必须有对此bucket的对应操作权限,bucket最终的数据其实还是通过PG来落盘到后端的osd存储中的。

RadosGW存储池作用

rgw安装流程请参考之前的部署文档,此处不在赘述,默认端口7480,能够curl通就表示安装成功:

$ curl 10.153.204.13:30080
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><ListAllMyBucketsResult xmlns="http://s3.amazonaws.com/doc/2006-03-01/"><Owner><ID>anonymous</ID><DisplayName></DisplayName></Owner><Buckets></Buckets></ListAllMyBucketsResult>

我这里更改了默认端口,改为了30080

rgw安装完毕后,会有一些默认创建的存储池:

$ ceph osd lspools | grep rgw 
1 .rgw.root
3 my-store.rgw.control
6 my-store.rgw.meta
7 my-store.rgw.log
8 my-store.rgw.buckets.index
9 my-store.rgw.buckets.non-ec
10 my-store.rgw.buckets.data

这些存储池也是分为两种类型的,一种是元数据存储池,一种是数据存储池:

  • .rgw.root : 包含realm(领域信息),比如zone和zonegroup。
  • rgw.log:存储日志信息,用户记录各种log信息。
  • rgw.control:系统控制池,在有数据更新时,通知其它RGW更新缓存。
  • rgw.meta:元数据存储池,通过不同的名称空间分别存储不同的rados对象,这些名称空间包括用户的UID,及其Bucket映射信息的名称空间users.uid,用户的密钥名称空间users.keys,用户的emai名称空间users.email,用户的subuser的名称空间 users.swift,bucket的名称空间root等。
  • rgw.buckets.index:存放bucket到object的索引信息。
  • rgw.buckets.non-ec:数据的额外信息存储池。
  • rgw.buckets.data:存放对象的数据

RadosGW常用操作详解

查看全部zone

$ radosgw-admin zone list 
{
    "default_info": "a06a6df5-68a4-47f0-9afa-2ac1c09aee58",
    "zones": [
        "my-store"
    ]
}

默认为default,我这里更改名字叫my-store

查看zone详情

$ radosgw-admin zone get --rgw-zone=my-store
{
    "id": "a06a6df5-68a4-47f0-9afa-2ac1c09aee58",
    "name": "my-store",
    "domain_root": "my-store.rgw.meta:root",
    "control_pool": "my-store.rgw.control",
    "gc_pool": "my-store.rgw.log:gc",
    "lc_pool": "my-store.rgw.log:lc",
    "log_pool": "my-store.rgw.log",
    "intent_log_pool": "my-store.rgw.log:intent",
    "usage_log_pool": "my-store.rgw.log:usage",
    "roles_pool": "my-store.rgw.meta:roles",
    "reshard_pool": "my-store.rgw.log:reshard",
    "user_keys_pool": "my-store.rgw.meta:users.keys",
    "user_email_pool": "my-store.rgw.meta:users.email",
    "user_swift_pool": "my-store.rgw.meta:users.swift",
    "user_uid_pool": "my-store.rgw.meta:users.uid",
    "otp_pool": "my-store.rgw.otp",
    "system_key": {
        "access_key": "",
        "secret_key": ""
    },
    "placement_pools": [
        {
            "key": "default-placement",
            "val": {
                "index_pool": "my-store.rgw.buckets.index",
                "storage_classes": {
                    "STANDARD": {
                        "data_pool": "my-store.rgw.buckets.data"
                    }
                },
                "data_extra_pool": "my-store.rgw.buckets.non-ec",
                "index_type": 0
            }
        }
    ],
    "realm_id": ""
}

radosgw创建新用户认证

$ radosgw-admin user create --uid="vfan" --display-name="my vfan"{
    "user_id": "vfan",
    "display_name": "my vfan",
    "email": "",
    "suspended": 0,
    "max_buckets": 1000,
    "subusers": [],
    "keys": [
        {
            "user": "vfan",
            "access_key": "Q6VGP3LYMH99D0A9GUV0",
            "secret_key": "NVDfq7CBJgpUnCXKqbgVuKvI3siWNbx0sRltClA4"
        }
    ],
    "swift_keys": [],
    "caps": [],
    "op_mask": "read, write, delete",
    "default_placement": "",
    "default_storage_class": "",
    "placement_tags": [],
    "bucket_quota": {
        "enabled": false,
        "check_on_raw": false,
        "max_size": -1,
        "max_size_kb": 0,
        "max_objects": -1
    },
    "user_quota": {
        "enabled": false,
        "check_on_raw": false,
        "max_size": -1,
        "max_size_kb": 0,
        "max_objects": -1
    },
    "temp_url_keys": [],
    "type": "rgw",
    "mfa_ids": []
}

新建一个子用户

为了给用户新建一个子用户 (Swift 接口) ,必须为该子用户指定用户的 ID(--uid={username}),子用户的 ID 以及访问级别:

$ radosgw-admin subuser create --uid=vfan --subuser=vfan:swift --access=full
{
    "user_id": "vfan",
    "display_name": "my vfan",
    "email": "",
    "suspended": 0,
    "max_buckets": 1000,
    "subusers": [
        {
            "id": "vfan:swift",
            "permissions": "full-control"
        }
    ],
    "keys": [
        {
            "user": "vfan",
            "access_key": "Q6VGP3LYMH99D0A9GUV0",
            "secret_key": "NVDfq7CBJgpUnCXKqbgVuKvI3siWNbx0sRltClA4"
        }
    ],
    "swift_keys": [
        {
            "user": "vfan:swift",
            "secret_key": "GrjjD8yJgr2khUCIeRmggNMWqnganFlhMKMMom9s"
        }
    ],
    "caps": [],
    "op_mask": "read, write, delete",
}

–access=full并不仅仅代表读写,因为他还包括访问权限策略。

查看user列表

$ radosgw-admin user list 
[
    "vfan",
    "ceph-object-user"
]

禁用或启动一个用户

创建账户后,默认是启用状态,可以将其设置为关闭状态:

## 停用一个用户
$ radosgw-admin user suspend --uid=vfan

## 启用一个用户
$ radosgw-admin user enable --uid=vfan

主要是用户中的”suspended”值发生了变化,开启为0,关闭为1。

添加或删除 用户管理权限

## 添加
$ radosgw-admin caps add --uid=vfan --caps="users=*"

## 删除
$ radosgw-admin caps rm --uid=vfan --caps="users=write"

–caps=”[users|buckets|metadata|usage|zone]=[*|read|write|read, write]”

删除用户 或 子用户

## 删除用户
$ radosgw-admin user rm --uid=vfan

## 删除子用户
$ radosgw-admin subuser rm --subuser=vfan:swift

查看所有的bucket桶

$ radosgw-admin bucket list 
[
    "my-test-bucket"
]

查看桶内对象

$ radosgw-admin bucket list --bucket=my-test-bucket
[
    {
        "name": "hello.txt",
        "instance": "",
        "ver": {
            "pool": 10,
            "epoch": 1
        },
        "locator": "",
        "exists": "true",
        "meta": {
            "category": 1,
            "size": 12,
            "mtime": "2022-03-30T10:51:38.420295Z",
            "etag": "ed076287532e86365e841e92bfc50d8c",
            "storage_class": "",
            "owner": "vfan",
            "owner_display_name": "my vfan",
            "content_type": "application/octet-stream",
            "accounted_size": 12,
            "user_data": "",
            "appendable": "false"
        },
        "tag": "a06a6df5-68a4-47f0-9afa-2ac1c09aee58.24132.17942",
        "flags": 0,
        "pending_map": [],
        "versioned_epoch": 0
    }
]

查看存储桶详情

$ radosgw-admin bucket stats --bucket=my-test-bucket
{
    "bucket": "my-test-bucket",
    "num_shards": 0,
    "tenant": "",
    "zonegroup": "fd710024-4ba3-41bb-9f96-579d8f03dd1b",
    "placement_rule": "default-placement",
    "explicit_placement": {
        "data_pool": "",
        "data_extra_pool": "",
        "index_pool": ""
    },
    "id": "a06a6df5-68a4-47f0-9afa-2ac1c09aee58.24134.1",
    "marker": "a06a6df5-68a4-47f0-9afa-2ac1c09aee58.24134.1",
    "index_type": "Normal",
    "owner": "vfan",
    "ver": "0#2",
    "master_ver": "0#0",
    "mtime": "2022-03-30T10:51:38.323147Z",
    "creation_time": "2022-03-30T10:51:38.321498Z",
    "max_marker": "0#",
    "usage": {
        "rgw.main": {
            "size": 12,
            "size_actual": 4096,
            "size_utilized": 12,
            "size_kb": 1,
            "size_kb_actual": 4,
            "size_kb_utilized": 1,
            "num_objects": 1
        }
    },
    "bucket_quota": {
        "enabled": false,
        "check_on_raw": false,
        "max_size": -1,
        "max_size_kb": 0,
        "max_objects": -1
    }
}

查看用户配额

$ radosgw-admin user info --uid=vfan | grep -A 5 "quota"
    "bucket_quota": {
        "enabled": false,
        "check_on_raw": false,
        "max_size": -1,
        "max_size_kb": 0,
        "max_objects": -1
--
    "user_quota": {
        "enabled": false,
        "check_on_raw": false,
        "max_size": -1,
        "max_size_kb": 0,
        "max_objects": -1

默认这些配额都是未激活的,处于false状态。

激活用户配额

$ radosgw-admin quota enable --quota-scope=user --uid=vfan

$ radosgw-admin user info --uid=vfan | grep -A 5 "quota"
    "bucket_quota": {
        "enabled": false,
        "check_on_raw": false,
        "max_size": -1,
        "max_size_kb": 0,
        "max_objects": -1
--
    "user_quota": {
        "enabled": true,
        "check_on_raw": false,
        "max_size": -1,
        "max_size_kb": 0,
        "max_objects": -1

已激活用户配额,此时可以修改最大限额,默认是不限制。

更新配额

$ radosgw-admin quota set --uid=vfan --quota-scope=user --max-objects=10000 --max-size=107374182400
[cephadmin@yq01-aip-aikefu10.yq01.baidu.com ~]$ radosgw-admin user info --uid=vfan | grep -A 5 "quota"    
    "bucket_quota": {
        "enabled": false,
        "check_on_raw": false,
        "max_size": -1,
        "max_size_kb": 0,
        "max_objects": -1
--
    "user_quota": {
        "enabled": true,
        "check_on_raw": false,
        "max_size": 107374182400,
        "max_size_kb": 104857600,
        "max_objects": 10000

max_size单位是bytes,max_size_kb单位是kb。

操纵radosgw

一般对象存储都由开发在代码层面控制,几乎不需要我们运维人员操作什么,只需要把用户权限和集群维护好就没啥问题了,接下来用一段python代码来演示其bucket以及增删文件的操作。也有一些命令可以实现,例如s3cmd等。

需要先安装好python3环境,以及python的boto模块

# pip3 install boto-2.41.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl

如果没有pip源,离线下载地址:https://pypi.org/simple/boto/

python脚本编写

这里测试使用上边演示新创建的用户vfan

vi ceph-s3.py

import boto.s3.connection

access_key = 'Q6VGP3LYMH99D0A9GUV0' #创建S3用户时返回的AK
secret_key = 'NVDfq7CBJgpUnCXKqbgVuKvI3siWNbx0sRltClA4' #S3用户的SK
host = '10.153.204.13' # RWG节点IP和端口
port = 30080
# 新建一个连接
conn = boto.connect_s3(
        aws_access_key_id=access_key,
        aws_secret_access_key=secret_key,
        host=host, port=port,
        is_secure=False, calling_format=boto.s3.connection.OrdinaryCallingFormat(),
       )
# 新建一个Bucket
bucket = conn.create_bucket('my-vfan-bucket')

# 列出用户的所有Bucket
for bucket in conn.get_all_buckets():
    print("桶名称: %s, 创建时间: %s" %(bucket.name,bucket.creation_date))

# 列出Bucket内容
for key in bucket.list():
    print("key名称: %s, 文件大小: %s, 修改时间: %s" %(key.name,key.size,key.last_modified))

# 新建一个对象
key = bucket.new_key('hi.txt')
key.set_contents_from_string('Hello World!')

# 下载一个对象到文件
key = bucket.get_key('hi.txt')
key.get_contents_to_filename('/tmp/hi.txt')

执行py脚本

# python3 ceph-s3.py
桶名称: my-test-bucket, 创建时间: 2022-03-30T10:51:38.321Z
桶名称: my-vfan-bucket, 创建时间: 2022-04-01T07:32:54.671Z

# cat /tmp/hi.txt 
Hello World!

已经新创建了一个名为my-vfan-bucket的bucket,并新建了一个对象hi.txt,并下载到了本地的/tmp目录下。

可以优化一下脚本,使其可以单项操作

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

"""
@Time    : 2021-12-22 19:14
@Author  : xxxxxx
@Email   : xxxxxx
@File    : bucket.py
@Software: PyCharm
"""
import boto
import boto.s3.connection


class Bucket():
    """
    ceph中bucket相关的类
    boto s3 api手册:http://boto.readthedocs.org/en/latest/ref/s3.html
    boto s3 api用法:https://docs.ceph.com/en/latest/radosgw/s3/python/#
    """
    def __init__(self, ak, sk, host, port):
        self.ak = ak
        self.sk = sk
        self.host = host
        self.port = port
        self.conn = boto.connect_s3(aws_access_key_id=self.ak, aws_secret_access_key=self.sk, host=self.host,
                                    port=self.port, is_secure=False,
                                    calling_format=boto.s3.connection.OrdinaryCallingFormat())
        print self.conn

    def bucketList(self):
        """
        获取所有的bucketList
        :return:
        """
        for bucket in self.conn.get_all_buckets():
            print("{name}\t{created}".format(name=bucket.name, created=bucket.creation_date))

    def bucketCreate(self, bucketName):
        """
        创建bucket
        :return:
        """
        createRes = self.conn.create_bucket(bucketName)
        print createRes

    def bucketDelete(self):
        """
        删除bucket
        :return:
        """
        pass

if __name__ == "__main__":
    """
    主函数
    """
    access_key = "FHPC3HED7P7J8ADFQVOD"
    secret_key = "Zgf01sjynnAbNS6yCO99VFphDQ6sOlmPBRRd7P2E"
    host = "xxxxx"
    port = 8000
    bucketName = 'share'
    bucket = Bucket(access_key, secret_key, host, port)
    # 创建bucket
    bucket.bucketCreate(bucketName)
    # 查看bucket列表
    # bucket.bucketList()

可以再基于此脚本优化,增加其他功能。

RadosGW相关操作至此已演示介绍完毕,后续会陆续介绍一些自定义crush规则、pg及一些常用的参数配置。

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