[源码解析] TensorFlow 分布式环境(6) — Master 动态逻辑

在具体介绍 TensorFlow 分布式的各种 Strategy 之前,我们首先需要看看分布式的基础:分布式环境。只有把基础打扎实了,才能在以后的分析工作之中最大程度的扫清障碍,事半功倍。本文会从 Client 开始,看看 Master 如何对计算图进行处理。

[源码解析] TensorFlow 分布式环境(6) — Master 动态逻辑

在具体介绍 TensorFlow 分布式的各种 Strategy 之前,我们首先需要看看分布式的基础:分布式环境。只有把基础打扎实了,才能在以后的分析工作之中最大程度的扫清障碍,事半功倍。本文会从 Client 开始,看看 Master 如何对计算图进行处理。

本文依旧深度借鉴了两位大神:

本系列其他文章是:

[翻译] TensorFlow 分布式之论文篇 “TensorFlow : Large-Scale Machine Learning on Heterogeneous Distributed Systems”

[翻译] TensorFlow 分布式之论文篇 “Implementation of Control Flow in TensorFlow”

[源码解析] TensorFlow 分布式环境(1) — 总体架构

[源码解析] TensorFlow 分布式环境(2)—Master 静态逻辑

[源码解析] TensorFlow 分布式环境(3)— Worker 静态逻辑

[源码解析] TensorFlow 分布式环境(4) — WorkerCache

[源码解析] TensorFlow 分布式环境(5) — Session

1. GrpcSession

1.1 运行

首先,客户会调用 GrpcSession 来开始运行,而 Run 方法会调用 RunHelper。

Status GrpcSession::Run(const RunOptions& run_options,
                        const std::vector<std::pair<string, Tensor>>& inputs,
                        const std::vector<string>& output_tensor_names,
                        const std::vector<string>& target_node_names,
                        std::vector<Tensor>* outputs,
                        RunMetadata* run_metadata) {
  return RunHelper(run_options, inputs, output_tensor_names, target_node_names,
                   outputs, run_metadata, /* prun_handle */ "");
}

RunHelper 方法如下,这里重要的是添加 feed 和 fetch,然后调用 RunProto 运行 session。

Status GrpcSession::RunHelper(
    const RunOptions& run_options,
    const std::vector<std::pair<string, Tensor>>& inputs,
    const std::vector<string>& output_tensor_names,
    const std::vector<string>& target_node_names, std::vector<Tensor>* outputs,
    RunMetadata* run_metadata, const string& prun_handle) {
  // Convert to proto
  std::unique_ptr<MutableRunStepRequestWrapper> req(
      master_->CreateRunStepRequest());
  std::unique_ptr<MutableRunStepResponseWrapper> resp(
      master_->CreateRunStepResponse());

  *req->mutable_options() = run_options;

  if (run_options.timeout_in_ms() == 0) {
    req->mutable_options()->set_timeout_in_ms(
        options_.config.operation_timeout_in_ms());
  }

  if (!prun_handle.empty()) {
    req->set_partial_run_handle(prun_handle);
  }

  for (const auto& it : inputs) {
    req->add_feed(it.first, it.second);
  }

  // Support long error messages by storing the error code in the response body.
  req->set_store_errors_in_response_body(true);

  // Build an index from fetch tensor name to first index in
  // output_tensor_names.
  std::unordered_map<string, int> output_name_to_offset;
  for (int i = 0, end = output_tensor_names.size(); i < end; ++i) {
    const string& name = output_tensor_names[i];
    if (output_name_to_offset.insert(std::make_pair(name, i)).second) {
      req->add_fetch(name);
    }
  }
  for (const string& target : target_node_names) {
    req->add_target(target);
  }

  CallOptions call_options;
  call_options.SetTimeout(req->options().timeout_in_ms());
  
  // 调用 RunProto 运行session
  TF_RETURN_IF_ERROR(RunProto(&call_options, req.get(), resp.get()));

  // Look for an extended error returned in the response body.
  if (resp->status_code() != error::Code::OK) {
    return resp->status();
  }

  if (!output_tensor_names.empty()) {
    outputs->resize(output_tensor_names.size());
  }

  // Convert response back to Tensors in the correct order.
  for (size_t i = 0; i < resp->num_tensors(); ++i) {
    auto fetch_it = output_name_to_offset.find(resp->tensor_name(i));
    if (fetch_it == output_name_to_offset.end()) {
      return errors::Internal("Received response for unrequested fetch: ",
                              resp->tensor_name(i));
    }

    Tensor output;
    TF_RETURN_IF_ERROR(resp->TensorValue(i, &output));
    (*outputs)[fetch_it->second] = output;
  }
  // In the unlikely event that output_tensor_names contains duplicates, fill in
  // the duplicate values.
  if (output_name_to_offset.size() != output_tensor_names.size()) {
    for (int i = 0, end = output_tensor_names.size(); i < end; ++i) {
      const string& name = output_tensor_names[i];
      int offset = output_name_to_offset[name];
      if (offset != i) {
        (*outputs)[i] = (*outputs)[offset];
      }
    }
  }

  if (run_metadata) {
    run_metadata->Swap(resp->mutable_metadata());
  }

  return Status::OK();
}

最终 RunProto 还是调用到 master_->RunStep 完成业务功能。

Status GrpcSession::RunProto(CallOptions* call_options,
                             MutableRunStepRequestWrapper* req,
                             MutableRunStepResponseWrapper* resp) {
  string handle;
  TF_RETURN_IF_ERROR(Handle(&handle));
  req->set_session_handle(handle);
  return master_->RunStep(call_options, req, resp);
}

master_ 就是 GrpcRemoteMaster,所以我们接着看下去。

1.2 GrpcRemoteMaster

GrpcRemoteMaster 是位于 Client 的 gRPC 客户端实现,它的 RunStep 方法只是通过 gRPC stub 来调用 远端服务 MasterService 的 RunStep 接口,其实就是发送一个 RunStepRequest 请求。

Status RunStep(CallOptions* call_options, RunStepRequestWrapper* request,
               MutableRunStepResponseWrapper* response) override {
  return CallWithRetry(call_options, &request->ToProto(),
                       get_proto_from_wrapper(response),
                       &MasterServiceStub::RunStep, "RunStep/Client");
}

于是,此时 Client 的逻辑拓展如下:

图 1 Master 动态逻辑 1

2. Master

从现在开始,我们进入到了 Master 角色对应的服务器。GrpcMasterService 运行的是 gRPC 服务,当收到 RunStepRequest 时候,系统会调用到 RunStepHandler。代码位于:tensorflow/core/distributed_runtime/rpc/grpc_master_service.cc。

// RPC handler for running one step in a session.
void RunStepHandler(MasterCall<RunStepRequest, RunStepResponse>* call) {
  auto* trace = TraceRpc("RunStep/Server", call->client_metadata());
  CallOptions* call_opts = new CallOptions;
  if (call->request.options().timeout_in_ms() > 0) {
    call_opts->SetTimeout(call->request.options().timeout_in_ms());
  } else {
    call_opts->SetTimeout(default_session_config_.operation_timeout_in_ms());
  }
  RunStepRequestWrapper* wrapped_request =
      new ProtoRunStepRequest(&call->request);
  MutableRunStepResponseWrapper* wrapped_response =
      new NonOwnedProtoRunStepResponse(&call->response);
  call->SetCancelCallback([call_opts]() { call_opts->StartCancel(); });
  master_impl_->RunStep(
      call_opts, wrapped_request, wrapped_response,
      [call, call_opts, wrapped_request, trace](const Status& status) {
        call->ClearCancelCallback();
        delete call_opts;
        delete wrapped_request;
        delete trace;
        if (call->request.store_errors_in_response_body() && !status.ok()) {
          call->response.set_status_code(status.code());
          call->response.set_status_error_message(status.error_message());
          call->SendResponse(ToGrpcStatus(Status::OK()));
        } else {
          call->SendResponse(ToGrpcStatus(status));
        }
      });
  ENQUEUE_REQUEST(RunStep, true);
}

master_impl_ 是 Master 实例,RunStep 会调用master session进行计算。

void Master::RunStep(CallOptions* opts, const RunStepRequestWrapper* req,
                     MutableRunStepResponseWrapper* resp, MyClosure done) {

  // 获取session
  auto session = FindMasterSession(req->session_handle());

  // 运行session
  SchedClosure([this, start_time, session, opts, req, resp, done]() {
    Status status = session->Run(opts, *req, resp); 
  });
}

现在我们正式进入到 Master 的业务逻辑,接下来就看看如何进一步处理。

2.1 总体概述

我们先来做一下总体概述。在 Master 上:

  • 首先完成对 FullGraph 的剪枝,生成 ClientGraph。
  • 然后,按照 Worker 维度将 ClientGraph 切分为多个 PartitionGraph。
  • 最后,将 PartitionGraph 列表注册给各个 Worker(这里有一个 RPC 操作),并启动各个 Worker 对 PartitionGraph 列表进行并发执行(这里有一个 RPC 操作)。

结合代码来看如下。首先,Master 会调用 FindMasterSession 找到 session_handle 对应的 MasterSession,这之后,逻辑就由 MasterSession 来接管。

MasterSession* Master::FindMasterSession(const string& handle) {
  MasterSession* session = nullptr;
  {
    mutex_lock l(mu_);
    session = gtl::FindPtrOrNull(sessions_, handle);
    if (session != nullptr) {
      session->Ref();
    }
  }
  return session;
}

其次,MasterSession::Run 有两种调用可能,我们这里选择 DoRunWithLocalExecution 来分析。

Status MasterSession::Run(CallOptions* opts, const RunStepRequestWrapper& req,
                          MutableRunStepResponseWrapper* resp) {
  UpdateLastAccessTime();
  {
    mutex_lock l(mu_);
    if (closed_) {
      return errors::FailedPrecondition("Session is closed.");
    }
    ++num_running_;
    // Note: all code paths must eventually call MarkRunCompletion()
    // in order to appropriate decrement the num_running_ counter.
  }
  Status status;
  if (!req.partial_run_handle().empty()) {
    status = DoPartialRun(opts, req, resp);
  } else {
    status = DoRunWithLocalExecution(opts, req, resp);
  }
  return status;
}

DoRunWithLocalExecution 会做三个主要操作:

  • StartStep 将调用 BuildGraph 来生成 ClientGraph,这里会进行剪枝。
  • BuildAndRegisterPartitions 将 计算图按 location 不同切分为多个子图。
  • RunPartitions 执行子图。这里的一个子图就对应一个 worker,就是对应一个 worker service。
Status MasterSession::DoRunWithLocalExecution(
    CallOptions* opts, const RunStepRequestWrapper& req,
    MutableRunStepResponseWrapper* resp) {

  PerStepState pss;
  pss.start_micros = Env::Default()->NowMicros();
  auto cleanup = gtl::MakeCleanup([this] { MarkRunCompletion(); });

  // Prepare.
  BuildGraphOptions bgopts;
  BuildBuildGraphOptions(req, session_opts_.config, &bgopts);
  ReffedClientGraph* rcg = nullptr;
  int64 count;
  // StartStep 将调用 BuildGraph 来生成 ClientGraph,这里会进行剪枝
  TF_RETURN_IF_ERROR(StartStep(bgopts, false, &rcg, &count));

  // Unref "rcg" when out of scope.
  core::ScopedUnref unref(rcg);

  // 对计算图进行切分
  TF_RETURN_IF_ERROR(BuildAndRegisterPartitions(rcg));

  // Keeps the highest 8 bits 0x01: we reserve some bits of the
  // step_id for future use.
  uint64 step_id = NewStepId(rcg->collective_graph_key());

  std::unique_ptr<ProfileHandler> ph;
  FillPerStepState(rcg, req.options(), step_id, count, &pss, &ph);

  if (pss.collect_partition_graphs &&
      session_opts_.config.experimental().disable_output_partition_graphs()) {
    return errors::InvalidArgument(
        "RunOptions.output_partition_graphs() is not supported when "
        "disable_output_partition_graphs is true.");
  }

  // 执行计算图
  Status s = rcg->RunPartitions(env_, step_id, count, &pss, opts, req, resp,
                                &cancellation_manager_, false);

  cleanup.release();  // MarkRunCompletion called in PostRunCleanup().
  return PostRunCleanup(rcg, step_id, req.options(), &pss, ph, s,
                        resp->mutable_metadata());
}

我们接下来对 DoRunWithLocalExecution 三个主要操作一一分析。

2.2 建立 & 剪枝

2.2.1 建立计算图

StartStep 关键是建立计算图并且做剪枝。

Status MasterSession::StartStep(const BuildGraphOptions& opts, bool is_partial,
                                ReffedClientGraph** out_rcg,
                                int64_t* out_count) {
  const uint64 hash = HashBuildGraphOptions(opts);
  {
    mutex_lock l(mu_);
    RCGMap* m = is_partial ? &partial_run_graphs_ : &run_graphs_;
    auto iter = m->find(hash);
    if (iter == m->end()) {
      // We have not seen this subgraph before. Build the subgraph and
      // cache it.
      std::unique_ptr<ClientGraph> client_graph;
      // 建立计算图
      TF_RETURN_IF_ERROR(execution_state_->BuildGraph(opts, &client_graph));
      WorkerCacheInterface* worker_cache = get_worker_cache();
      auto entry = new ReffedClientGraph(
          handle_, opts, std::move(client_graph), session_opts_,
          stats_publisher_factory_, is_partial, worker_cache,
          !should_delete_worker_sessions_);
      iter = m->insert({hash, entry}).first;
    }
    *out_rcg = iter->second;
    (*out_rcg)->Ref();
    *out_count = (*out_rcg)->get_and_increment_execution_count();
  }
  return Status::OK();
}

2.2.2 剪枝

BuildGraph 之中最关键的是调用 PruneGraph 进行剪枝。

Status GraphExecutionState::BuildGraph(const BuildGraphOptions& options,
                                       std::unique_ptr<ClientGraph>* out) {
  // Grappler optimization might change the structure of a graph itself, and
  // also it can add/prune functions to/from the library.
  std::unique_ptr<Graph> optimized_graph;
  std::unique_ptr<FunctionLibraryDefinition> optimized_flib;

  Status s = OptimizeGraph(options, *graph_, flib_def_.get(), &optimized_graph,
                           &optimized_flib);
  if (!s.ok()) {
    // Simply copy the original graph and the function library if we couldn't
    // optimize it.
    optimized_graph.reset(new Graph(flib_def_.get()));
    CopyGraph(*graph_, optimized_graph.get());
    optimized_flib.reset(new FunctionLibraryDefinition(*flib_def_));
  }

  subgraph::RewriteGraphMetadata rewrite_metadata;
  if (session_options_ == nullptr ||
      !session_options_->config.graph_options().place_pruned_graph()) {
    TF_RETURN_IF_ERROR( // PruneGraph 会进行剪枝
        PruneGraph(options, optimized_graph.get(), &rewrite_metadata));
  } else {
    // This GraphExecutionState represents a graph that was
    // pruned when this was constructed, so we copy the metadata from
    // a member variable.
    CHECK(rewrite_metadata_);
    rewrite_metadata = *rewrite_metadata_;
  }

  GraphOptimizationPassOptions optimization_options;
  optimization_options.session_options = session_options_;
  optimization_options.graph = &optimized_graph;
  optimization_options.flib_def = optimized_flib.get();
  optimization_options.device_set = device_set_;

  TF_RETURN_IF_ERROR(OptimizationPassRegistry::Global()->RunGrouping(
      OptimizationPassRegistry::POST_REWRITE_FOR_EXEC, optimization_options));

  int64_t collective_graph_key = options.collective_graph_key;
  if (collective_graph_key == BuildGraphOptions::kNoCollectiveGraphKey) {
    // BuildGraphOptions does not specify a collective_graph_key.  Check all
    // nodes in the Graph and FunctionLibraryDefinition for collective ops and
    // if found, initialize a collective_graph_key as a hash of the ordered set
    // of instance keys.
    std::set<int32> instance_key_set;
    bool has_collective_v2 = false;
    for (Node* node : optimized_graph->nodes()) {
      if (node->IsCollective()) {
        int32_t instance_key;
        TF_RETURN_IF_ERROR(
            GetNodeAttr(node->attrs(), "instance_key", &instance_key));
        instance_key_set.emplace(instance_key);
      } else if (IsCollectiveV2(node->type_string())) {
        has_collective_v2 = true;
      } else {
        const FunctionDef* fdef = optimized_flib->Find(node->def().op());
        if (fdef != nullptr) {
          for (const NodeDef& ndef : fdef->node_def()) {
            if (ndef.op() == "CollectiveReduce" ||
                ndef.op() == "CollectiveBcastSend" ||
                ndef.op() == "CollectiveBcastRecv" ||
                ndef.op() == "CollectiveGather") {
              int32_t instance_key;
              TF_RETURN_IF_ERROR(
                  GetNodeAttr(ndef, "instance_key", &instance_key));
              instance_key_set.emplace(instance_key);
            } else if (IsCollectiveV2(ndef.op())) {
              has_collective_v2 = true;
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
    if (!instance_key_set.empty()) {
      uint64 hash = 0x8774aa605c729c72ULL;
      for (int32_t instance_key : instance_key_set) {
        hash = Hash64Combine(instance_key, hash);
      }
      collective_graph_key = hash;
    } else if (has_collective_v2) {
      collective_graph_key = 0x8774aa605c729c72ULL;
    }
  }

  // Make collective execution order deterministic if needed.
  if (options.collective_order != GraphCollectiveOrder::kNone) {
    TF_RETURN_IF_ERROR(
        OrderCollectives(optimized_graph.get(), options.collective_order));
  }

  // Copy the extracted graph in order to make its node ids dense,
  // since the local CostModel used to record its stats is sized by
  // the largest node id.
  std::unique_ptr<ClientGraph> dense_copy(
      new ClientGraph(std::move(optimized_flib), rewrite_metadata.feed_types,
                      rewrite_metadata.fetch_types, collective_graph_key));
  CopyGraph(*optimized_graph, &dense_copy->graph);

  metrics::UpdateGraphBuildTime(Env::Default()->NowMicros() - start_time_usecs);
  *out = std::move(dense_copy);
  return Status::OK();
}

2.3 切分注册

2.2.1 原理

因为单个设备的计算能力和存储都不足,所以需要对大型模型进行模型分片,其本质就是把模型和相关计算进行切分之后分配到不同的设备之上。

TensorFlow的 Placement 机制就是解决模型分片问题,其作用就是标明哪个 operation 放置在哪个设备之上。Placement 这个名词或者说机制最早应该是 Google Spanner 提出来的,其提供跨区数据迁移时管理功能,也有一定的负载均衡意义。TF 的 Placement 借鉴了 Google 的思想,其原则是:尽量满足用户需求;尽量使用计算更快的设备;优先考虑近邻性,避免拷贝;确保分配之后的程序可以运行。

Placement 机制完成之后,每个节点就拥有了Placement信息,而 Partition 方法就可以根据这些节点的信息对计算图进行切分。

2.2.2 配置

BuildAndRegisterPartitions 之中会调用 RegisterPartitions 切分注册,我们首先关注的是这里如何配置切分。可以看到,其使用 SplitByWorker 做了切分标准。

Status MasterSession::BuildAndRegisterPartitions(ReffedClientGraph* rcg) {
  // 为切分做配置
  PartitionOptions popts;
  popts.node_to_loc = SplitByWorker; // 被worker切分
  popts.new_name = [this](const string& prefix) {
    mutex_lock l(mu_);
    return strings::StrCat(prefix, "_S", next_node_id_++);
  };
  popts.get_incarnation = [this](const string& name) -> int64 {
    Device* d = devices_->FindDeviceByName(name);
    if (d == nullptr) {
      return PartitionOptions::kIllegalIncarnation;
    } else {
      return d->attributes().incarnation();
    }
  };
  popts.control_flow_added = false; // 控制流
  const bool enable_bfloat16_sendrecv =
      session_opts_.config.graph_options().enable_bfloat16_sendrecv();
  // 是否cast
  popts.should_cast = [enable_bfloat16_sendrecv](const Edge* e) {
    if (e->IsControlEdge()) {
      return DT_FLOAT;
    }
    DataType dtype = BaseType(e->src()->output_type(e->src_output()));
    if (enable_bfloat16_sendrecv && dtype == DT_FLOAT) {
      return DT_BFLOAT16;
    } else {
      return dtype;
    }
  };
  if (session_opts_.config.graph_options().enable_recv_scheduling()) {
    popts.scheduling_for_recvs = true;
    popts.need_to_record_start_times = true;
  }

  // 切分注册子图
  TF_RETURN_IF_ERROR(rcg->RegisterPartitions(std::move(popts)));

  return Status::OK();
}

SplitByWorker 方法如下。

static string SplitByWorker(const Node* node) {
  string task;
  string device;
  CHECK(DeviceNameUtils::SplitDeviceName(node->assigned_device_name(), &task,
                                         &device))
      << "node: " << node->name() << " dev: " << node->assigned_device_name();
  return task;
}

BuildAndRegisterPartitions 然后调用了 RegisterPartitions,RegisterPartitions 会调用 DoBuildPartitions 进行分区,调用 DoRegisterPartitions 注册分区。

Status MasterSession::ReffedClientGraph::RegisterPartitions(
    PartitionOptions popts) {
  {  // Ensure register once.
    mu_.lock();
    if (client_graph_before_register_) {
      // The `ClientGraph` is no longer needed after partitions are registered.
      // Since it can account for a large amount of memory, we consume it here,
      // and it will be freed after concluding with registration.

      std::unique_ptr<ClientGraph> client_graph;
      std::swap(client_graph_before_register_, client_graph);
      mu_.unlock();
      std::unordered_map<string, GraphDef> graph_defs;
      popts.flib_def = client_graph->flib_def.get();
      
      // 进行分区
      Status s = DoBuildPartitions(popts, client_graph.get(), &graph_defs);
      if (s.ok()) {
        // NOTE(mrry): The pointers in `graph_defs_for_publishing` do not remain
        // valid after the call to DoRegisterPartitions begins, so
        // `stats_publisher_` must make a copy if it wants to retain the
        // GraphDef objects.
        std::vector<const GraphDef*> graph_defs_for_publishing;
        graph_defs_for_publishing.reserve(partitions_.size());
        for (const auto& name_def : graph_defs) {
          graph_defs_for_publishing.push_back(&name_def.second);
        }
        
        stats_publisher_->PublishGraphProto(graph_defs_for_publishing);
        
        // 注册分区
        s = DoRegisterPartitions(popts, std::move(graph_defs));
      }
      mu_.lock();
      init_result_ = s;
      init_done_.Notify();
    } else {
      mu_.unlock();
      init_done_.WaitForNotification();
      mu_.lock();
    }
    const Status result = init_result_;
    mu_.unlock();
    return result;
  }
}

2.2.3 切分

DoBuildPartitions 会调用 Partition 正式进入切分。

#include "tensorflow/core/graph/graph_partition.h"

Status MasterSession::ReffedClientGraph::DoBuildPartitions(
    PartitionOptions popts, ClientGraph* client_graph,
    std::unordered_map<string, GraphDef>* out_partitions) {
  if (popts.need_to_record_start_times) {
    CostModel cost_model(true);
    cost_model.InitFromGraph(client_graph->graph);
    // TODO(yuanbyu): Use the real cost model.
    // execution_state_->MergeFromGlobal(&cost_model);
    SlackAnalysis sa(&client_graph->graph, &cost_model);
    sa.ComputeAsap(&popts.start_times);
  }

  // Partition the graph.
  return Partition(popts, &client_graph->graph, out_partitions);
}
2.2.3.1 Partition

Partition 的主要逻辑如下:

  • 切分原计算图,产生多个子图。
  • 如果跨设备的节点互相有依赖,则插入 Send 和 Recv 节点对。
  • 如果需要,插入 Control Flow 边。

具体来说是:

  • 分析原计算图。补齐控制流边。
    • 为控制流的分布式执行添加 “代码”。只为放在多个设备上的框架(frames)添加代码。新图是原图的等价变换,并且具有这样的特性:它可以随后被任意分割(低至单个设备的水平),以便分布式执行。
  • 为每个 operator 的节点/边构建 Memory/Device 信息,也是为了切分做准备。
    • TF 希望参与计算的张量被分配到设备上,参与控制的张量被分配到 Host 之上,所以需要对每个 op 进行分析,确定其在 CPU 或者 GPU 上的版本,也需要确定其输入和输出张量的内存信息,比如某些 op 虽然位于 GPU 之上但是依然需要从 CPU 读取数据,又比如有些数据需要强制放到 CPU 之上因为其对 GPU 不友好。
  • 遍历图的节点进行分析和切分,插入 Send/Recv 节点和控制边,最终得到多个子图。
    • 从原图取出一个节点 dst,拿到 dst 的 location 信息,依据 location 信息拿到其在 partitions 之中的GraphDef,添加 Node,设置设备。
    • 将 dst 在原来图之中的输入边分析出来,连同控制边一起,插入到 inputs 数组之中。
    • 取出 dst 的一个输入边,得到边的 src 节点,得到 src 节点的图。
      • 如果 src/dst 在同一个图之中,则说明是同样分区和可以兼容的内存类型,则在这个图里面把 src,dst 连接起来,遍历到 dst 下一个边。
      • 如果 src/dst 不在同一个图里面,所以需要通信,这样就需要依据 edge, src 等信息构建通信 key,依据 key 在 cache 之中查找 Recv 节点,如果找到了,就把 Recv 节点和 dst 节点连起来,遍历到 dst 下一个边。
      • 如果存在控制边,因为是跨设备,需要把这种依赖关系跨设备等价表示出来。所以虽然控制边不真正传输张量,也需要发一个消息给接受方,这样接收方才知道有一个依赖关系。所以在src设备上插入一个 dummy const node,在接收方插入一个 identity 节点来读取这个 shape 是 0 的 dummy const,还需要把 identity 确定为接收方的控制依赖。
      • 添加 Send 节点和 Recv 节点。
      • 针对控制/数据关系做进一步修复。
        • 对于同一设备上的发送/接收节点,它们之间是有数据拷贝操作的,所以添加一个从发送到接收的控制边。这样可以防止异步 recv kernel 在数据可用之前就被调度出去,从而保证了执行顺序。
        • 否则是跨设备,需要根据数据流来重定向控制边到真实的 recv 节点。
  • 收尾工作,比如完善子图的版本信息,函数库,和send/recv节点的 Incarnation

比如分割之后,如下:

图 2 分割计算图,来自 TensorFlow

插入 Send/Recv 节点之后如下:

图 3 插入节点,来自 TensorFlow

Partition 代码具体如下,进行大幅精简。

Status Partition(const PartitionOptions& opts, Graph* g,
                 std::unordered_map<string, GraphDef>* partitions) {
  Status status;
  partitions->clear();

  GraphInfo g_info;
  if (!opts.control_flow_added) {
    // 分析原计算图。补齐控制流边。
    // 为控制流的分布式执行添加 "代码"。只为放在多个设备上的框架(frames)添加代码。新图是原图的等价变换,并且具有这样的特性:它可以随后被任意分割(低至单个设备的水平),以便分布式执行。
    status = AddControlFlow(opts, g, &g_info);
    if (!status.ok()) return status;
  }

  // At this point, all the graph mutations have been done. Build memory
  // and device type info for every node and edge in the graph.
  // 为每个operator的节点/边构建Memory/Device信息,也是为了切分做准备。
  // TF希望参与计算的张量被分配到设备上,参与控制的张量被分配到Host之上,所以需要对每个op进行分析,确定其在CPU或者GPU上的版本,也需要确定其输入和输出张量的内存信息,比如某些op虽然位于GPU之上但是依然需要从CPU读取数据,而有些数据需要强制放到CPU之上因为其对GPU不友好。
  status = BuildMemoryDeviceInfo(*g, &g_info);
  if (!status.ok()) return status;

  string dstp;
  std::vector<const Edge*> inputs;
  DupRecvTable dup_recv(3);
  //  对于一个节点dst,'ref_recvs'是由ref边引入到dst的recvs。ref_control_inputs'是由非ref到dst的输入。
  // 对于(ref_recvs x ref_control_inputs)之中每一个pair,我们增加一个控制边
  std::vector<NodeDef*> ref_recvs;
  std::vector<string> ref_control_inputs;

  int32_t num_data = 0;
  int32_t num_control = 0;
  for (const Node* dst : g->op_nodes()) { // 遍历图的节点进行分析和切分,插入Send/Recv节点和控制边
    // 从原图取出一个节点dst
    dstp = opts.node_to_loc(dst); // 拿到dst的location信息
    GraphDef* dst_graph = &(*partitions)[dstp]; // 依据location信息拿到其在partitions之中的GraphDef
    NodeDef* dst_def = dst_graph->add_node(); // 添加Node
    *dst_def = dst->def();
    dst_def->set_device(dst->assigned_device_name()); // 设置设备   
    dst_def->clear_input();  // Inputs are filled below

    // Arrange the incoming edges to dst so that input[i] holds the
    // input flowing into slot numbered i. Trailing entries in input[]
    // hold control edges.
    // 将dst在原来图之中的输入边分析出来,连同控制边一起,插入到inputs数组之中。
    inputs.clear();
    inputs.resize(dst->num_inputs(), nullptr);
    ref_recvs.clear();
    ref_control_inputs.clear();
    const Edge* control_flow_edge = nullptr;
    int32_t num_control_flow_edges = 0;
    int32_t num_input_edges = 0;
    for (const Edge* edge : dst->in_edges()) {
      if (edge->IsControlEdge()) {
        if (IsMerge(edge->src()) && IsControlLoop(edge->src())) {
          // This is one of the control edges added for control flow. There
          // can be multiple such edges as the dest node may have multiple
          // remote inputs. We keep track of the number of such edges.
          control_flow_edge = edge;
          ++num_control_flow_edges;
        } else {
          inputs.push_back(edge);
        }
      } else {
        DCHECK(inputs[edge->dst_input()] == nullptr);
        inputs[edge->dst_input()] = edge;
        ++num_input_edges;
      }
    }

    // Process in order so that all data edges are added as inputs to
    // dst in Edge::dst_input() order.
    for (const Edge* edge : inputs) { // 取出dst的一个边
      const Node* src = edge->src(); // 得到边的src节点
      if (!src->IsOp()) continue;  // Skip Sink/Source nodes.

      GraphDef* src_graph = &(*partitions)[opts.node_to_loc(src)]; // 调用配置的 SplitByWorker 或者 SplitByDevice 进行分区,得到src节点的图
      if (src_graph == dst_graph && !NeedSameDeviceSendRecv(edge, g_info)) {
        // 在同一个图之中,则说明是同样分区和可以兼容的内存类型,则在这个图里面把src,dst连接起来
        // Same partition and compatible memory types:
        AddInput(dst_def, src->name(), edge->src_output());
        if (edge->IsControlEdge() ||
            !IsRefType(src->output_type(edge->src_output()))) {
          ref_control_inputs.push_back(src->name());
        }
        continue; // 遍历到dst下一个边
      }

      // Check whether there is already a send/recv pair transferring
      // the same tensor/control from the src to dst partition.
      const bool on_host = IsDstInputOnHost(edge, g_info);
      // 因为不在同一个图里面,所以需要通信,这样就需要依据edge, src等信息构建通信key
      DupRecvKey key{src->id(), edge->src_output(), dst_graph, on_host};
      auto iter = dup_recv.find(key); // 依据key在cache之中查找Recv节点
      if (iter != dup_recv.end()) { // 如果找到了,就把Recv节点和dst节点连起来
        // We found one. Reuse the data/control transferred already.
        const string& recv_node_name = iter->second.recv->name();
        if (edge->IsControlEdge()) {
          AddInput(dst_def, recv_node_name, Graph::kControlSlot);
        } else {
          AddInput(dst_def, recv_node_name, 0);
        }
        ref_control_inputs.push_back(recv_node_name);
        continue; // 遍历到dst下一个边
      }

      // 添加Send节点和Recv节点
      NodeDefBuilder::NodeOut send_from; // 设定发送节点信息
      if (edge->IsControlEdge()) {
        // Insert a dummy const node that will generate a tiny
        // data element to be sent from send to recv.
        // 如果存在控制边,因为是跨设备,需要把这种依赖关系跨设备等价表示出来。
        // 所以虽然控制边不真正传输张量,也需要发一个消息给接受方,这样接收方才知道有一个依赖关系。所以在src设备上插入一个dummy const node,在接收方插入一个identity节点来读取这个shape是0的dummy const,还需要把identity确定为接收方的控制依赖
        NodeDef* dummy = AddDummyConst(opts, src_graph, edge, &status);
        if (!status.ok()) return status;
        AddInput(dummy, src->name(), Graph::kControlSlot);
        send_from.Reset(dummy->name(), 0, DT_FLOAT);
      } else {
        send_from.Reset(src->name(), edge->src_output(), EdgeType(edge));
      }

      // Need to split edge by placing matching send/recv nodes on
      // the src/dst sides of the edge.
      NodeDef* send = AddSend(opts, g_info, src_graph, edge, send_from,
                              send_start_time, &status);
      if (!status.ok()) return status;

      NodeDef* real_recv = nullptr;
      NodeDef* recv =
          AddRecv(opts, g_info, dst_graph, edge, &real_recv, &status);
      if (!status.ok()) return status;

       if (src_graph == dst_graph) {
        // For same device send/recv, add a control edge from send to recv.
        // This prevents the asynchronous recv kernel from being scheduled
        // before the data is available.
        // 对于同一设备上的发送/接收节点,它们之间是有数据拷贝操作的,所以添加一个从发送到接收的控制边。这样可以防止异步recv kernel在数据可用之前就被调度出去,从而保证了执行顺序。
        AddInput(real_recv, send->name(), Graph::kControlSlot);
      } else if (control_flow_edge != nullptr) {
        // Redirect control edge to the real recv since this is not the same
        // device send/recv.
        // 否则是跨设备,需要根据数据流来重定向控制边到真实的recv节点
        --num_control_flow_edges;
        AddInput(real_recv, control_flow_edge->src()->name(),
                 Graph::kControlSlot);
      }

      if (!edge->IsControlEdge() &&
          IsRefType(src->output_type(edge->src_output()))) {
        // If src is of ref type and the edge is not a control edge, dst has
        // read semantics and therefore we must control the recv.
        ref_recvs.push_back(real_recv);
      } else {
        // Memorize the send/recv pair, only if this is not a "ref" edge.
        // NOTE(yuanbyu): Collapsing ref edges requires extreme care so
        // for now we don't do it.
        dup_recv[key] = {recv, real_recv, recv_start_time};
        ref_control_inputs.push_back(recv->name());
      }

      if (edge->IsControlEdge()) {
        ++num_control;
        AddInput(dst_def, recv->name(), Graph::kControlSlot);
      } else {
        ++num_data;
        AddInput(dst_def, recv->name(), 0);
      }
    }

    // Add control edges from 'ref_control_inputs' to 'ref_recvs'.
    // NOTE(yuanbyu): Adding these control edges should not introduce
    // deadlocks. 'dst' has implicit "read" nodes that, when we split
    // across devices, are made explicit; Retargeting the dependencies
    // to 'dst' to those nodes would not introduce cycles if there isn't
    // one before the transformation.
    // NOTE(yuanbyu): This may impact performance because it defers the
    // execution of recvs until all the other inputs become available.
    AddReadControl(ref_recvs, ref_control_inputs);

    // Add back the control edges for control flow that are not used.
    if (control_flow_edge != nullptr) {
      for (int i = 0; i < num_control_flow_edges; ++i) {
        AddInput(dst_def, control_flow_edge->src()->name(),
                 Graph::kControlSlot);
      }
    }
  }

  // 收尾工作,比如完善子图的版本信息,函数库,和send/recv节点的Incarnation
  const FunctionLibraryDefinition* flib_def = opts.flib_def;
  if (flib_def == nullptr) {
    flib_def = &g->flib_def();
  }

  // Set versions, function library and send/recv incarnation.
  for (auto& it : *partitions) {
    GraphDef* gdef = &it.second;
    *gdef->mutable_versions() = g->versions();
    // Prune unreachable functions from `flib_def` before adding them to `gdef`.
    *gdef->mutable_library() = flib_def->ReachableDefinitions(*gdef).ToProto();

    // Traverse the graph to fill every send/recv op's incarnation
    // information.
    SetIncarnation(opts, gdef);
  }

  return Status::OK();
}

Partition 用到的部分函数具体如下。

2.2.3.2 AddDummyConst

如果存在控制边,因为是跨设备,需要把这种依赖关系跨设备等价表示出来。所以虽然控制边不真正传输张量,也需要发一个消息给接受方,这样接收方才知道有一个依赖关系。

所以在src设备上插入一个 dummy const node 用来表达这种对下游的控制依赖关系,在接收方插入一个 identity节点来读取这个 shape 是 0 的 dummy const,还需要把identity确定为接收方的控制依赖。这样,dummy const node 是生产者,Identity 是消费者角色。就满足了跨设备间的通信需求。

NodeDef* AddDummyConst(const PartitionOptions& opts, GraphDef* gdef,
                       const Edge* edge, Status* status) {
  const Node* src = edge->src();
  Tensor tensor(DT_FLOAT, TensorShape({0}));
  NodeDef* result = gdef->add_node();
  *status = NodeDefBuilder(opts.new_name(src->name()), "Const")
                .Device(src->assigned_device_name())
                .Attr("dtype", DT_FLOAT)
                .Attr("value", tensor)
                .Finalize(result, /*consume=*/true);
  return result;
}
2.2.3.3 AddSend

如果 src 和 dst 分别属于两个 Partition,则需要把原来两者之间的普通边切分开,在它们中间增加 Send 与 Recv 节点,这样就可以将其划归在两个不同 Partition 之内。

NodeDef* AddSend(const PartitionOptions& opts, const GraphInfo& g_info,
                 GraphDef* gdef, const Edge* edge,
                 NodeDefBuilder::NodeOut send_from, int64_t start_time,
                 Status* status) {
  const DataType dtype = send_from.data_type;
  const DataType cast_dtype = opts.should_cast ? opts.should_cast(edge) : dtype;
  const Node* src = edge->src();
  const int src_port = edge->src_output();

  // host_memory = true iff we need to use HostSend/HostCast.
  bool host_memory = false;
  if (!edge->IsControlEdge()) {
    auto src_it = g_info.output_types.find({src->id(), src_port});
    host_memory = (src_it->second == HOST_MEMORY);
  }

  // Add a cast node that casts dtype to cast_dtype.
  // NOTE(yuanbyu): Only cast for cross-device send/recv.
  if (dtype != cast_dtype && !NeedSameDeviceSendRecv(edge, g_info)) {
    const string cast_op = (host_memory) ? "_HostCast" : "Cast";
    NodeDefBuilder cast_builder(opts.new_name(src->name()), cast_op,
                                NodeDebugInfo(*src));
    cast_builder.Device(src->assigned_device_name()).Input(send_from);
    cast_builder.Attr("DstT", cast_dtype);

    if (cast_dtype == DT_BFLOAT16) {
      // the below attribute specifies that the cast to bfloat16 should use
      // truncation. This is needed to retain legacy behavior when we change
      // the default bfloat16 casts to use rounding instead of truncation
      cast_builder.Attr("Truncate", true);
    }

    NodeDef* cast = gdef->add_node();
    *status = cast_builder.Finalize(cast, /*consume=*/true);
    if (!status->ok()) return nullptr;

    // Connect the Send op to the cast.
    send_from.Reset(cast->name(), 0, cast_dtype);
  }

  // Add the send node.
  const string send_op = (host_memory) ? "_HostSend" : "_Send";
  NodeDefBuilder send_builder(opts.new_name(src->name()), send_op,
                              NodeDebugInfo(*src));
  SetSendRecvAttrs(opts, edge, &send_builder);
  send_builder.Device(src->assigned_device_name()).Input(send_from);

  NodeDef* send = gdef->add_node();
  *status = send_builder.Finalize(send, /*consume=*/true);
  return send;
}
2.2.3.4 AddRecv

前面提到的在接收方插入一个 identity 节点来读取这个 shape 是 0 的 dummy const,还需要把 identity 确定为接收方的控制依赖,这部分代码在此实现。Identity 是恒等变化,可以直接输出张量,这样既去除了变量的引用标识,也避免了内存拷贝。

NodeDef* AddRecv(const PartitionOptions& opts, const GraphInfo& g_info,
                 GraphDef* gdef, const Edge* edge, NodeDef** real_recv,
                 Status* status) {
  const DataType dtype = EdgeType(edge);
  const Node* src = edge->src();
  const Node* dst = edge->dst();
  const int dst_port = edge->dst_input();
  DataType cast_dtype = dtype;

  // NOTE(yuanbyu): Only cast for cross-device send/recv.
  if (opts.should_cast && !NeedSameDeviceSendRecv(edge, g_info)) {
    cast_dtype = opts.should_cast(edge);
  }

  // host_memory = true iff we need to use HostRecv/HostCast.
  // Also log the introduction of the send-recv pair, for performance debugging.
  bool host_memory = false;
  if (!edge->IsControlEdge()) {
    auto dst_it = g_info.input_types.find({dst->id(), dst_port});
    DCHECK(dst_it != g_info.input_types.end());
    host_memory = (dst_it->second == HOST_MEMORY);
    bool src_host_memory = false;
  } else {
    // Log control-edge transfers too, but don't mention memory space since it's
    // irrelevant.
		// 省略log
  }

  // Add the recv node.
  const string recv_op = (host_memory) ? "_HostRecv" : "_Recv";
  NodeDefBuilder recv_builder(opts.new_name(src->name()), recv_op,
                              NodeDebugInfo(*src));
  SetSendRecvAttrs(opts, edge, &recv_builder);
  recv_builder.Device(dst->assigned_device_name())
      .Attr("tensor_type", cast_dtype);
  NodeDef* recv = gdef->add_node();
  *status = recv_builder.Finalize(recv, /*consume=*/true);
  if (!status->ok()) return nullptr;
  *real_recv = recv;

  // Add the cast node (from cast_dtype to dtype) or an Identity node.
  if (dtype != cast_dtype) {
    const string cast_op = (host_memory) ? "_HostCast" : "Cast";
    NodeDefBuilder cast_builder(opts.new_name(src->name()), cast_op,
                                NodeDebugInfo(*src));
    cast_builder.Attr("DstT", dtype);
    cast_builder.Device(dst->assigned_device_name())
        .Input(recv->name(), 0, cast_dtype);
    NodeDef* cast = gdef->add_node();
    *status = cast_builder.Finalize(cast, /*consume=*/true);
    if (!status->ok()) return nullptr;
    return cast;
  } else if (edge->IsControlEdge()) {
    // An Identity is only needed for control edges.
    // 这里加入了"Identity"。
    NodeDefBuilder id_builder(opts.new_name(src->name()), "Identity",
                              NodeDebugInfo(*src));
    id_builder.Device(dst->assigned_device_name())
        .Input(recv->name(), 0, cast_dtype);
    NodeDef* id = gdef->add_node();
    *status = id_builder.Finalize(id, /*consume=*/true);
    if (!status->ok()) return nullptr;
    return id;
  } else {
    return recv;
  }
}
2.2.3.5 AddInput

AddInput 为下游节点增加输入。

// Add an input to dst that comes from the "src_slot" output of the
// node named by "src_name".
void AddInput(NodeDef* dst, StringPiece src_name, int src_slot) {
  if (src_slot == Graph::kControlSlot) {
    dst->add_input(strings::StrCat("^", src_name));
  } else if (src_slot == 0) {
    dst->add_input(src_name.data(), src_name.size());
  } else {
    dst->add_input(strings::StrCat(src_name, ":", src_slot));
  }
}
2.2.3.6 AddReadControl

AddReadControl 其实是通过 add_input 完成控制。

// Add a control edge from each input to each recv.
void AddReadControl(const std::vector<NodeDef*>& recvs,
                    const std::vector<string>& inputs) {
  for (NodeDef* recv : recvs) {
    for (const string& input : inputs) {
      recv->add_input(strings::StrCat("^", input));
    }
  }
}

2.2.4 注册

现在分区完毕,我们来到了注册阶段。

2.2.4.1 DoRegisterPartitions

DoRegisterPartitions 会设置哪个 worker 负责哪个分区,关键代码是:

  • 调用 part->worker = worker_cache_->GetOrCreateWorker(part->name) 来设置每个 part 的 worker。

  • 调用 part.worker->RegisterGraphAsync(&c->req, &c->resp, cb) 来注册图。

Status MasterSession::ReffedClientGraph::DoRegisterPartitions(
    const PartitionOptions& popts,
    std::unordered_map<string, GraphDef> graph_partitions) {
  partitions_.reserve(graph_partitions.size());
  Status s;
  for (auto& name_def : graph_partitions) {
    partitions_.emplace_back();
    Part* part = &partitions_.back();
    part->name = name_def.first;
    TrackFeedsAndFetches(part, name_def.second, popts);
    part->worker = worker_cache_->GetOrCreateWorker(part->name);
    if (part->worker == nullptr) {
      s = errors::NotFound("worker ", part->name);
      break;
    }
  }
  if (!s.ok()) {
    for (Part& part : partitions_) {
      worker_cache_->ReleaseWorker(part.name, part.worker);
      part.worker = nullptr;
    }
    return s;
  }
  struct Call {
    RegisterGraphRequest req;
    RegisterGraphResponse resp;
    Status status;
  };
  const int num = partitions_.size();
  gtl::InlinedVector<Call, 4> calls(num);
  BlockingCounter done(num);
  for (int i = 0; i < num; ++i) {
    const Part& part = partitions_[i];
    Call* c = &calls[i];
    c->req.set_session_handle(session_handle_);
    c->req.set_create_worker_session_called(!should_deregister_);
    c->req.mutable_graph_def()->Swap(&graph_partitions[part.name]);
    StripDefaultAttributes(*OpRegistry::Global(),
                           c->req.mutable_graph_def()->mutable_node());
    *c->req.mutable_config_proto() = session_opts_.config;
    *c->req.mutable_graph_options() = session_opts_.config.graph_options();
    *c->req.mutable_debug_options() =
        callable_opts_.run_options().debug_options();
    c->req.set_collective_graph_key(collective_graph_key_);

    auto cb = [c, &done](const Status& s) {
      c->status = s;
      done.DecrementCount();
    };
    part.worker->RegisterGraphAsync(&c->req, &c->resp, cb);
  }
  done.Wait();
  for (int i = 0; i < num; ++i) {
    Call* c = &calls[i];
    s.Update(c->status);
    partitions_[i].graph_handle = c->resp.graph_handle();
  }
  return s;
}
2.2.4.2 GrpcRemoteWorker

上面的 part.worker->RegisterGraphAsync 会调用到 GrpcRemoteWorker,最终发送 RegisterGraphRequest 给下游 Worker。

tensorflow/core/distributed_runtime/rpc/grpc_remote_worker.cc 之中,RegisterGraphAsync 会调用 rpc。

void RegisterGraphAsync(const RegisterGraphRequest* request,
                        RegisterGraphResponse* response,
                        StatusCallback done) override {
  IssueRequest(request, response, registergraph_, std::move(done));
}

注意是,除非计算图节点被重新编排,或者 Master 进程被重启,否则Master 只会执行一次 RegisterGraph。概念上具体示意如下:

图 4 注册图,来自 TensorFlow

2.4 执行计算图

既然已经分区结束,也注册到了远端 Worker 之上,每个worker都拥有自己的子图,接下来就是运行子图。

Master 通过调用 RunGraph 来在 Worker 之上触发子图运算,Worker 会使用 GPU/CPU 运算设备执行TensorFlow Kernel 运算。在 Worker/设备之间会依据情况不同采用不同传输方式:

  • 本节点 GPU 和 CPU 之间采用 cudaMemcpyAsync。
  • 本节点 GPU 和 GPU 之间采用 peer-to-peer DMA。
  • 在 Worker 之间采用 gRPC(TCP) 和 RDMA (Converged Ethernet)。

图 5 运行子图

2.4.1 RunPartitions

RunPartitions 调用了 RunPartitionsHelper 执行subgraph。

Status MasterSession::ReffedClientGraph::RunPartitions(
    const MasterEnv* env, int64_t step_id, int64_t execution_count,
    PerStepState* pss, CallOptions* call_opts, const RunCallableRequest& req,
    RunCallableResponse* resp, CancellationManager* cm) {

  // Maps the names of fed tensors to their index in `req`.
  std::unordered_map<StringPiece, size_t, StringPieceHasher> feeds(3);
  for (size_t i = 0, end = callable_opts_.feed_size(); i < end; ++i) {
    if (!feeds.insert({callable_opts_.feed(i), i}).second) {
      // MakeCallable will fail if there are two feeds with the same name.
      return errors::Internal("Duplicated feeds in callable: ",
                              callable_opts_.feed(i));
    }
  }

  // Create a wrapped response object to collect the fetched values and
  // rearrange them for the RunCallableResponse.
  RunCallableResponseWrapper wrapped_resp;
  wrapped_resp.resp = resp;

  // 在这里调用执行
  TF_RETURN_IF_ERROR(RunPartitionsHelper(
      feeds, callable_opts_.fetch(), env, step_id, execution_count, pss,
      call_opts, req, &wrapped_resp, cm, false /* is_last_partial_run */));

  // Collects fetches.
  for (const string& fetch : callable_opts_.fetch()) {
    TensorProto* fetch_proto = resp->mutable_fetch()->Add();
    auto iter = wrapped_resp.fetch_key_to_protos.find(fetch);
    if (iter == wrapped_resp.fetch_key_to_protos.end()) {
      return errors::Internal("Worker did not return a value for fetch: ",
                              fetch);
    }
    fetch_proto->Swap(&iter->second);
  }
  return Status::OK();
}

2.4.2 RunPartitionsHelper

RunPartitionsHelper执行子图,具体逻辑是:

  • 为每一个分区配置一个 RunManyGraphs::Call,给这个 call 配置 request,response,session handle,graph handle,request id,配置 recv key。
  • 每个 worker 发送 RunGraphAsync。
    • 一个子图分配给一个 worker,对应一个 worker service。
    • part.worker 是每个分区对应的 WorkerInterface 对象,如果在远程是 GrpcRemoteWorker 实例,否则是 Worker 实例。
  • 注册各种 callback,等待 RunGraphAsync 运行结果。
  • 处理运行结果。
template <class FetchListType, class ClientRequestType,
          class ClientResponseType>
Status MasterSession::ReffedClientGraph::RunPartitionsHelper(
    const std::unordered_map<StringPiece, size_t, StringPieceHasher>& feeds,
    const FetchListType& fetches, const MasterEnv* env, int64_t step_id,
    int64_t execution_count, PerStepState* pss, CallOptions* call_opts,
    const ClientRequestType& req, ClientResponseType* resp,
    CancellationManager* cm, bool is_last_partial_run) {
  // Collect execution cost stats on a smoothly decreasing frequency.
  ExecutorOpts exec_opts;
  // 省略统计代码

  const int num = partitions_.size();
  RunManyGraphs calls(num);

  for (int i = 0; i < num; ++i) {
    // 为每一个分区配置一个RunManyGraphs::Call
    const Part& part = partitions_[i];
    RunManyGraphs::Call* c = calls.get(i);
    c->worker_name = &part.name;
    c->req.reset(part.worker->CreateRunGraphRequest()); // 配置request
    c->resp.reset(part.worker->CreateRunGraphResponse()); // 配置response
    if (is_partial_) {
      c->req->set_is_partial(is_partial_);
      c->req->set_is_last_partial_run(is_last_partial_run);
    }
    c->req->set_session_handle(session_handle_); // 配置session handle
    c->req->set_create_worker_session_called(!should_deregister_);
    c->req->set_graph_handle(part.graph_handle); // 配置graph handle
    c->req->set_step_id(step_id);
    *c->req->mutable_exec_opts() = exec_opts;
    c->req->set_store_errors_in_response_body(true);
    c->req->set_request_id(GetUniqueRequestId()); // 配置request id
    // If any feeds are provided, send the feed values together
    // in the RunGraph request.
    // In the partial case, we only want to include feeds provided in the req.
    // In the non-partial case, all feeds in the request are in the part.
    // We keep these as separate paths for now, to ensure we aren't
    // inadvertently slowing down the normal run path.
    if (is_partial_) {
      for (const auto& name_index : feeds) {
        const auto iter = part.feed_key.find(string(name_index.first));
        if (iter == part.feed_key.end()) {
          // The provided feed must be for a different partition.
          continue;
        }
        const string& key = iter->second;
        TF_RETURN_IF_ERROR(AddSendFromClientRequest(req, c->req.get(),
                                                    name_index.second, key));
      }
      // TODO(suharshs): Make a map from feed to fetch_key to make this faster.
      // For now, we just iterate through partitions to find the matching key.
      for (const string& req_fetch : fetches) {
        for (const auto& key_fetch : part.key_fetch) {
          if (key_fetch.second == req_fetch) {
            c->req->add_recv_key(key_fetch.first); // 配置 recv key
            break;
          }
        }
      }
    } else {
      for (const auto& feed_key : part.feed_key) {
        const string& feed = feed_key.first;
        const string& key = feed_key.second;
        auto iter = feeds.find(feed);
        if (iter == feeds.end()) {
          return errors::Internal("No feed index found for feed: ", feed);
        }
        const int64_t feed_index = iter->second;
        TF_RETURN_IF_ERROR(
            AddSendFromClientRequest(req, c->req.get(), feed_index, key));
      }
      for (const auto& key_fetch : part.key_fetch) {
        const string& key = key_fetch.first;
        c->req->add_recv_key(key); // 配置 recv key
      }
    }
  }

  // Issues RunGraph calls.
  for (int i = 0; i < num; ++i) {
    const Part& part = partitions_[i];
    RunManyGraphs::Call* call = calls.get(i);
    part.worker->RunGraphAsync( // 每个 worker 发送 RunGraphAsync
        &call->opts, call->req.get(), call->resp.get(),
        std::bind(&RunManyGraphs::WhenDone, &calls, i, std::placeholders::_1));
  }

  // Waits for the RunGraph calls.
  // 注册各种callback,等待运行结果
  call_opts->SetCancelCallback([&calls]() {
    calls.StartCancel();
  });
  auto token = cm->get_cancellation_token();
  const bool success =
      cm->RegisterCallback(token, [&calls]() { calls.StartCancel(); });
  if (!success) {
    calls.StartCancel();
  }
  calls.Wait();
  call_opts->ClearCancelCallback();
  if (success) {
    cm->DeregisterCallback(token);
  } else {
    return errors::Cancelled("Step was cancelled");
  }

  // Collects fetches and metadata.
  // 处理运行结果          
  Status status;
  for (int i = 0; i < num; ++i) {
    const Part& part = partitions_[i];
    MutableRunGraphResponseWrapper* run_graph_resp = calls.get(i)->resp.get();
    for (size_t j = 0; j < run_graph_resp->num_recvs(); ++j) {
      auto iter = part.key_fetch.find(run_graph_resp->recv_key(j));
      if (iter == part.key_fetch.end()) {
        status.Update(errors::Internal("Unexpected fetch key: ",
                                       run_graph_resp->recv_key(j)));
        break;
      }
      const string& fetch = iter->second;
      status.Update(
          resp->AddTensorFromRunGraphResponse(fetch, run_graph_resp, j));
      if (!status.ok()) {
        break;
      }
    }
    if (pss->collect_timeline) {
      pss->step_stats[i].Swap(run_graph_resp->mutable_step_stats());
    }
    if (pss->collect_costs) {
      CostGraphDef* cost_graph = run_graph_resp->mutable_cost_graph();
      for (int j = 0; j < cost_graph->node_size(); ++j) {
        resp->mutable_metadata()->mutable_cost_graph()->add_node()->Swap(
            cost_graph->mutable_node(j));
      }
    }
    if (pss->collect_partition_graphs) {
      protobuf::RepeatedPtrField<GraphDef>* partition_graph_defs =
          resp->mutable_metadata()->mutable_partition_graphs();
      for (size_t i = 0; i < run_graph_resp->num_partition_graphs(); i++) {
        partition_graph_defs->Add()->Swap(
            run_graph_resp->mutable_partition_graph(i));
      }
    }
  }
  return status;
}

2.4.3 GrpcRemoteWorker

上面调用到了如下代码通知远端 Worker 运行子图。

part.worker->RunGraphAsync(
    &call->opts, call->req.get(), call->resp.get(),
    std::bind(&RunManyGraphs::WhenDone, &calls, i, std::placeholders::_1));

RunGraphAsync 具体定义就是 GrpcRemoteWorker 之中。GrpcRemoteWorker 的每个函数调用 IssueRequest() 发起一个异步 gRPC 调用。

void RunGraphAsync(CallOptions* call_opts, const RunGraphRequest* request,
                   RunGraphResponse* response, StatusCallback done) override {
  IssueRequest(request, response, rungraph_, std::move(done), call_opts);
}

远端运行的 GrpcWorkerService 作为守护进程,将会处理传入的 gRPC 请求。

我们总结 DoRunWithLocalExecution 总体逻辑如下:

图 6 DoRunWithLocalExecution 总体逻辑

2.5 小结

运行逻辑小结如下,注意这里有两个grpc 调用,一个是 register,一个是 run。首先调用 register 把子图注册到远端 Worker 之上,其次调用 run 来让远端 Worker 完成子图计算。

图 7 Master 动态逻辑 2

我们马上会去 Worker 来一探究竟。

0xFF 参考

[1]. Abadi M, Agarwal A, Barham P, et al. Tensorflow: Large-scale machine learning on heterogeneous distributed systems[J]. arXiv preprint arXiv:1603.04467, 2016.

[2] TensorFlow的图切割模块——Graph Partitioner

[3] TensorFlow中的Placement启发式算法模块——Placer

[4] TensorFlow中的设备管理——Device的创建与注册机制

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