SpringCloudAlibaba 微服务讲解(二)微服务环境搭建

微服务环境搭建

我们这次是使用的电商项目的商品、订单、用户为案例进行讲解

2.1 案例准备

2.1.1 技术选型

  • maven :3.3.9
  • 数据库:mysql
  • 持久层:SpringData JPA
  • SpringCloud Alibaba技术栈

2.1.2 模块设计

  • springcloud-alibaba 父工程
  • shop-common 公共模块
  • shop-user 用户模块
  • shop-product 商品模块
  • shop-order 订单模块

2.1.3 微服务调用

在微服务架构中,最常见的场景就是微服务之间的相互调用。我们以电商系统中常见的用户下单为例来 演示微服务的调用:客户向订单微服务发起一下单的请求,在进行保存订单之前需要调用商品微服务 查询商品的信息
我们一般把服务的主动调用方称为服务消费者,把服务的被调用方称为服务提供者.

2.2创建父工程

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>2.1.3.RELEASE</version>
    </parent>

    <groupId>com.ityml</groupId>
    <artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
    <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <packaging>pom</packaging>
    <properties>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <project.reporting.outputEncoding>UTF-8</project.reporting.outputEncoding>
        <spring-cloud.version>Greenwich.RELEASE</spring-cloud.version>
        <spring-cloud-alibaba.version>2.1.0.RELEASE</spring-cloud-alibaba.version>
        <maven.compiler.source>8</maven.compiler.source>
        <maven.compiler.target>8</maven.compiler.target>
    </properties>
    <dependencyManagement>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
                <version>${spring-cloud.version}</version>
                <type>pom</type>
                <scope>import</scope>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </dependencyManagement>
</project>

对应版本:

https://www.cnblogs.com/onehm/p/13931711.html

2.3创建基础模块

2.3.1 shop-common模块

  1. 在pom中添加依赖

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
             xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
             xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
        <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    
        <parent>
            <groupId>com.ityml</groupId>
            <artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
            <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        </parent>
    
        <groupId>com.ityml</groupId>
        <artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-jpa</artifactId>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.projectlombok</groupId>
                <artifactId>lombok</artifactId>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>com.alibaba</groupId>
                <artifactId>fastjson</artifactId>
                <version>1.2.79</version>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>mysql</groupId>
                <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
                <version>5.1.49</version>
            </dependency>
    
        </dependencies>
    
    </project>
    
  2. 创建实体类

    /**
     * -----------------------------
     * PackageName: com.ityml.entity
     * ClassName:User
     * Description:用户
     *
     * @author:it-yml CreateTime:2022-03-22
     * -----------------------------
     */
    @Entity(name = "shop-user")
    @Data
    public class User {
        @Id
    
        @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
    
        private Integer uid;
    
        private String username;
    
        private String password;
    
        private String telephone;
    }
    
    /**
     * -----------------------------
     * PackageName: com.ityml.entity
     * ClassName:Product
     * Description:商品
     *
     * @author:it-yml CreateTime:2022-03-22
     * -----------------------------
     */
    @Entity(name = "shop-product")
    @Data
    public class Product {
    
        @Id
    
        @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
        private String pname;
        
        private Double price;
       
        private Integer stock;
    }
    
    /**
     * -----------------------------
     * PackageName: com.ityml.entity
     * ClassName:Order
     * Description:订单
     *
     * @author:it-yml CreateTime:2022-03-22
     * -----------------------------
     */
    @Entity(name = "shop-order")
    @Data
    public class Order {
        @Id
    
        @GeneratedValue(strategy = GenerationType.IDENTITY)
        private Long oid;
    
        private Integer uid;
    
        private String username;
    }
    

2.4 创建用户微服务

步骤:

  1. 创建模块
  2. 创建SpringBoot主类
  3. 加入配置文件
  4. 创建必要的接口和实现类

创建一个shop-user模块,然后进行下面操作

  1. 创建pom

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
             xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
             xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
        <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    
        <parent>
            <groupId>com.ityml</groupId>
            <artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
            <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        </parent>
    
        <groupId>com.ityml</groupId>
        <artifactId>shop-user</artifactId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>com.ityml</groupId>
                <artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>
                <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    
    
    </project>	
    
  2. 编写主类

    package com.ityml;
    
    import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
    import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
    
    /**
     * -----------------------------
     * PackageName: com.ityml
     * ClassName:UserApplication
     * Description:启动类
     *
     * @author:it-yml CreateTime:2022-03-22
     * -----------------------------
     */
    @SpringBootApplication
    public class UserApplication {
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            SpringApplication.run(UserApplication.class,args);
        }
    }
    
    
  3. 创建配置文件

    server:
      port: 8080
    spring:
      application:
        name: service-user
      datasource:
        driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
        url: jdbc://
        username:
        data-password:
    
      jpa:
        properties:
          hibernate:
            hbm2ddl:
              auto: update
            dialect: org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL.5InnoDDialect
    
    

2.5 创建商品微服务

  1. 创建一个名为shop-product的模块,并添加springboot依赖

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
             xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
             xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
        <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    
        <parent>
            <groupId>com.ityml</groupId>
            <artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
            <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        </parent>
    
        <groupId>com.ityml</groupId>
        <artifactId>shop-product</artifactId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>com.ityml</groupId>
                <artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>
                <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
        
    </project>
    
  2. 创建工程主类

    package com.ityml;
    
    import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
    import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
    
    /**
     * -----------------------------
     * PackageName: com.ityml
     * ClassName:ProductApplication
     * Description:商品主类
     *
     * @author:it-yml CreateTime:2022-03-23
     * -----------------------------
     */
    @SpringBootApplication
    public class ProductApplication {
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            SpringApplication.run(ProductApplication.class,args);
        }
    }
    
  3. 创建配置文件application.yml

    server:
      port: 8080
    spring:
      application:
        name: service-product
      datasource:
        driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
        url: jdbc://
        username:
        data-password:
    
      jpa:
        properties:
          hibernate:
            hbm2ddl:
              auto: update
            dialect: org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL.5InnoDDialect
    
  4. 创建ProductDao接口

    package com.ityml.dao;
    
    import com.ityml.entity.Product;
    import org.springframework.data.jpa.repository.JpaRepository;
    
    /**
     * -----------------------------
     * PackageName: com.ityml.dao
     * ClassName:ProductDao
     * Description:
     *
     * @author:it-yml CreateTime:2022-03-23
     * -----------------------------
     */
    public interface ProductDao extends JpaRepository<Product,Integer> {
    }
    
  5. 创建ProductService接口和实现类

    package com.ityml.service;
    
    import com.ityml.entity.Product;
    
    /**
     * -----------------------------
     * PackageName: com.ityml.service
     * ClassName:ProductService
     * Description:
     *
     * @author:it-yml CreateTime:2022-03-23
     * -----------------------------
     */
    public interface ProductService {
        Product findById(Integer pid);
    }
    
    package com.ityml.impl;
    
    import com.ityml.dao.ProductDao;
    import com.ityml.entity.Product;
    import com.ityml.service.ProductService;
    import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
    import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;
    
    
    /**
     * -----------------------------
     * PackageName: com.ityml.impl
     * ClassName:ProductServiceImpl
     * Description:实现类
     *
     * @author:it-yml CreateTime:2022-03-23
     * -----------------------------
     */
    @Service
    public class ProductServiceImpl implements ProductService {
        @Autowired
        private ProductDao productDao;
        @Override
        public Product findById(Integer pid) {
            return productDao.findById(pid).get();
        }
    }
    
    
  6. 创建Controller

    package com.ityml.controller;
    
    import com.ityml.entity.Product;
    import com.ityml.service.ProductService;
    import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
    import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PathVariable;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;
    
    /**
     * -----------------------------
     * PackageName: com.ityml.controller
     * ClassName:ProductController
     * Description:主类
     *
     * @author:it-yml CreateTime:2022-03-23
     * -----------------------------
     */
    @RestController
    @Slf4j
    public class  ProductController {
    
        @Autowired
        private ProductService productService;
    
        @GetMapping("/product/{pid}")
        public Product product(@PathVariable("pid") Integer pid){
            Product product = productService.findById(pid);
            return product;
        }
    
    
    }
    
  7. 启动工程

2.6 创建订单微服务

  1. 创建一个名为shop-order的模块,并添加springboot依赖

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
             xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
             xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
        <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    
        <parent>
            <groupId>com.ityml</groupId>
            <artifactId>springcloud-alibaba</artifactId>
            <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
        </parent>
    
        <groupId>com.ityml</groupId>
        <artifactId>shop-order</artifactId>
        <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    
        <dependencies>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
            </dependency>
            <dependency>
                <groupId>com.ityml</groupId>
                <artifactId>shop-common</artifactId>
                <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
            </dependency>
        </dependencies>
    </project>
    
  2. 创建工程主类

    package com.ityml;
    
    import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
    import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
    
    /**
     * -----------------------------
     * PackageName: com.ityml
     * ClassName:OrderApplication
     * Description:主类
     *
     * @author:it-yml CreateTime:2022-03-23
     * -----------------------------
     */
    @SpringBootApplication
    public class OrderApplication {
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            SpringApplication.run(OrderApplication.class,args);
        }
    }
    
  3. 创建配置文件

    server:
      port: 8080
    spring:
      application:
        name: service-order
      datasource:
        driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
        url: jdbc://
        username:
        data-password:
    
      jpa:
        properties:
          hibernate:
            hbm2ddl:
              auto: update
            dialect: org.hibernate.dialect.MySQL.5InnoDDialect
    
  4. 创建OrderDao接口

    package com.ityml.dao;
    
    import com.ityml.entity.Order;
    import org.springframework.data.jpa.repository.JpaRepository;
    
    /**
     * -----------------------------
     * PackageName: com.ityml.dao
     * ClassName:ProductDao
     * Description:
     *
     * @author:it-yml CreateTime:2022-03-23
     * -----------------------------
     */
    public interface OrderDao extends JpaRepository<Order,Integer> {
    }
    
  5. 创建OrderService接口和实现类

    package com.ityml.service;
    
    import com.ityml.entity.Order;
    
    /**
     * -----------------------------
     * PackageName: com.ityml.service
     * ClassName:ProductService
     * Description:
     *
     * @author:it-yml CreateTime:2022-03-23
     * -----------------------------
     */
    public interface OrderService {
        void save(Order order);
    }
    
  6. 创建RestTemplate

    package com.ityml;
    
    import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
    import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
    import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
    import org.springframework.web.client.RestTemplate;
    
    /**
     * -----------------------------
     * PackageName: com.ityml
     * ClassName:OrderApplication
     * Description:主类
     *
     * @author:it-yml CreateTime:2022-03-23
     * -----------------------------
     */
    @SpringBootApplication
    public class OrderApplication {
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            SpringApplication.run(OrderApplication.class,args);
        }
        @Bean
        public RestTemplate getRestTemplate(){
            return new RestTemplate();
        }
    }
    
  7. 创建Controller

    package com.ityml.controller;
    
    import com.ityml.entity.Order;
    import com.ityml.entity.Product;
    import com.ityml.service.OrderService;
    import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
    import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.GetMapping;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PathVariable;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;
    import org.springframework.web.client.RestTemplate;
    
    /**
     * -----------------------------
     * PackageName: com.ityml.controller
     * ClassName:OrderController
     * Description:主类
     *
     * @author:it-yml CreateTime:2022-03-23
     * -----------------------------
     */
    @RestController
    @Slf4j
    public class OrderController {
    
        @Autowired
        private OrderService orderService;
    
        @Autowired
        private RestTemplate restTemplate;
    
        /**
         * 准备买一件商品
         * @param pid
         */
        @GetMapping("/order/prod/{pid}")
        public void Order(@PathVariable("pid") Integer pid) {
            Product product = restTemplate.getForObject("http:/localhost:8081/product" + pid, Product.class);
            Order order = new Order();
            orderService.save(order);
        }
    
    }
    
  8. 启动工程,通过浏览器访问服务进行测试

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